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Full text of "The collection of heraldic stained glass at Ronaele Manor, Elkins Park, Pennsylvania : the residence of Mr. & Mrs. Fitz Eugene Dixon"

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to the Library by 

Mrs. Pitz Eugene Dixon 





wpbe vppnbowes swrougbt 
swrsten ful tbtfcfce 
sb^nen vx^tb sbapen sbelfcee. 

Creeo of piers plowman. 
















J?E3 2 5 1953 



HE sumptuous and important collection of 
ancient stained glass described in this book is 
entirely made up of panels which, until re- 
cently, adorned the windows of some of Eng- 
land's most famous houses. 
The heraldry depicted in these panels brings 
forcibly before us many of the most moving scenes of Eng- 
land's story, and, in their blaze of colour and in their form, the 
actors in such scenes are seen again to walk the stage of history. 
The Wars of the Roses, the strong and brilliant rule of the two 
Henrys, the seventh and the eighth, follow on and grow out of 
the events of Edward Ill's reign and the rivalries and jealou- 
sies of his descendants, and are themselves the roots from 
which sprang the ambitions and dissensions which charac- 
terised later Tudor days and the years of the Stuart Dynasty. 
All these and much more live again in this ancient heraldry ; 
more may be learnt from it by the thoughtful and observant 
mind than from many a page of the history books. Heraldry 
tells its story in clear, incisive language, without passion or 
exaggeration, and it is often found to be the key to the solu- 
tion of problems which have perplexed and baffled the most 
learned of historians. 

It would have wearied the reader and overburdened these 
pages to have told all that one would like to have told of the 
great folk — churchmen, statesmen, soldiers, scholars and cour- 
tiers — whose coat armour glows in the windows at Ronaele 
Manor, but it is hoped that enough has been said to adequately 
illustrate their heraldry and, before all, to whet the reader's 
appetite for fuller knowledge. 

A note of contrast is struck by the panels of a domestic 
character, from old English, Dutch and Flemish homes. They 



tell of the lives and endeavours of merchant-adventurers and 
craftsmen of the seventeenth century, of their bold voyaging 
in little-known seas and of the simplicity, and dignity withal, 
of their daily doings. 

The shepherd with his flock, the birds round the homestead, 
the harvest of the sea, all such things, common and daily 
sights, varied by snatches from classical story and mediaeval 
legend, find their place in this painted glass from old windows. 

Nemo est haeres viventis, so I will not call the American 
people the heirs of Europe by reason of their conservation of 
so much of the best of the ancient art of the Old World, but I 
do rejoice in the loving care and thoughtful appreciation shown 
by them in dealing with such of it as comes their way. 

To the expert knowledge, artistic discrimination and zeal 
displayed by Mr. Roy Grosvenor Thomas and Mr. Wilfred 
Drake is primarily due the credit for assembling this remark- 
able collection of gems of ancient art now set up in the win- 
dows of Ronaele Manor. 


London, 1927. 




' Morning Room 
The Library 
The Living Room . . 
The Dining Room . . 
The Reception Room 
The Entrance Hall 
The Stair Hall 
The Men's Room . . 








Mr. Dixon's Room 
The Boudoir 
Mrs. Dixon's Room 
Miss Dixon's Room 
Mr. Dixon Junr.'s Room 
The West Room 
The North Room . . 
The North-East Room 

An Armorial of the Heraldic Windows 










Facing Page 


i. Arms of John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, 

1\« VJ » • • •• •• •• •• • • • • X 



2. Arms of King Henry VIII 

3 . Arms of King Henry VIII 

4. Arms of Sir William Parr, K.G 

5. Arms of Edmund Lacy and John Grandison 

6. Arms of the Kingdoms of France and England 10 

7. Arms of Sir Roger Fiennes and the Kingdom of 

France 12 

8. Arms of Edward the Black Prince.. 

9. Arms of the City of Norwich 

10. Arms of King Edward III 

11. Arms of Edward, Prince of Wales, afterwards 

King Edward VI 

12. Arms of King Henry VIII 

13. Arms of John Barrett of Belhus .. 

14. Arms of Lord Grey of Wilton 

15. Arms of Sir Edward Norris 

16. Arms of Robert, Earl of Sussex, K.G. . . 

17. Arms of Sir Giles Capel 

18. Arms of George, Earl of Cumberland, K.G. 

19. Arms of William, Marquess of Winchester 

20. Arms of Sir Francis Knolles 

21. Arms of Sir Edward Coke 

22. Arms of Thomas, Earl of Exeter . . 

23. Arms of Thomas, Earl of Rutland 






List of Plates 

Facing Page 

4 6 

24. Arms of Henry, Earl of Lincoln . 

25. Arms of Ambrose, Earl of Warwick 

26. Arms of Thomas, Lord Wentworth 

27. Arms of King Henry VIII 

28. Arms of Erlye and Clederowe 

29. Arms of King Henry VIII 

30. Arms of Thomas, Lord Audley 

31. Arms of Queen Katherine Parr 

32. Arms of Paulet of Edington 

33. Arms of Paulet and Clederowe 

34. Arms of Edward, Prince of Wales 

35. Arms of Edward, Prince of Wales 

36. Arms of Seymour of Sudeley 

37. Arms of Sir John Hungerford, Sir Walter Hunger 

ford, and Thomas Hungerford 

38. Arms of Edward, Prince of Wales 

39. Arms of Thomas Hugford, Sir Anthony Hunger 

ford, and Henry, Earl of Devon 

40. Arms of King Henry VII 

41. Arms of Queen Mary I 

42. Arms of King Henry VIII 

43. Arms of Sir Thomas Moyle ; John, Lord Lovel, and 

Sir William Norris 

44. Arms of Queen Elizabeth and Queen Mary 

45. Badge of King Henry VII .. 

46. Badge of King Henry VII . . 

47. Badge of King Henry VII . . 

List of Plates 

Facing Page 

48. Arms of Edward, Prince of Wales . . . . 94 

49. Arms of Henry, Earl of Derby, K.G. ; Henry, 

Earl of Sussex, K.G., and Queen Elizabeth . . 96 

50. Arms of King Henry VIII impaled with the Cross 

of St. George 98 

51. Arms of William, Lord Burghley, K.G.; Robert, 

Earl of Leicester, K.G. ; and King Henry VIII. . 100 

52. Arms of Robert, Earl of Leicester, K.G.; Ambrose, 

Earl of Warwick, K.G.; and Thomas, Earl of 
Sussex, K.G 102 

53. Arms of Lord Grey of Wilton, K.G. ; Francis, Earl 

of Bedford, K.G. ; and William, Marquess of 
Winchester, K.G 104 




John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland 
XVI century 





T the north end of the room is a window of four 
lights containing in each upper light a shield of 
arms — in the two central lights Royal heraldry 
of the Tudor period, and, on either side, arms 
of noblemen distinguished in the Courts of the 
Tudor sovereigns of England. All these deco- 
rated the windows of the great house built at Cassiobury in 
Hertfordshire by Sir Richard Morrison and his son Charles 
between the years 1545 and 1556, a part of which is incorpo- 
rated in the present house there, restored by the architect 
James Wyatt, in 1800, by the order of the first Earl of Essex of 
the Capel family. Prior to the removal of these panels to 
Ronaele Manor they were fixed in the windows of the cloister 
on the south-west side of the courtyard of Wyatt's building. ^,. 

The first light from the west shows the arms of John Dud- 
ley, Duke of Northumberland, whose ill-laid plan to divert 
the succession to the crown of England on the death of 
Edward VI to his own family ended in his own beheading on 
Tower Hill and the imprisonment of his five sons in the Tower 
of London. 

Of these, Guilford, and his child- wife, Jane Grey, the 
Queen of a day, were executed for their enforced complicity in 
Northumberland's treason, and the others, John, Ambrose, 
Robert and Henry, remained under arrest for some time. In 
the Tower of London, in the Beauchamp Tower, is to be seen 

A I 

Heraldic Stained Glass 
to-day a carved wall-panel commemorating the imprisonment 
of these brothers, done by the eldest of them, John, to while 
away the tedious hours of his enforced stay in durance. This 
shield was painted before John Dudley's elevation to the 
Dukedom, when he was Earl of Warwick only. 

Several of the quarterings in this shield are painted in black 
and white only, though some of them show examples of 
' abraded ' work — the removal of a coloured ' flash ' or 
veneer on white glass — so as to indicate coloured objects on 
white or white objects on colour, as the case may be. 

The fourteen quarterings which follow the lion of Dudley in 
this shield call for a few remarks, for so many quarterings 
indicate a claim to very ancient descent, and it is a notorious 
fact that the question of the origin of the Dudleys is not free 
from difficulty. There was a story, put about by enemies of 
the family, to the effect that Edmund Dudley, Henry VII's 
Minister, was the son of a carpenter in the town of Dudley 
who migrated to Lewes in Sussex, but this tale has been quite 
disproved by the discovery, some years ago, of the will of 
Edmund's father, John Dudley of Atherington in Sussex, 
Esquire, High Sheriff of his County. In this will he be- 
queaths money for prayers to be said for the souls of William 
Dudley, Bishop of Durham, and * my brother Oliver Dudley.' 

Now, as both these persons are known to have been sons of 
John, sixth Baron of Dudley, it follows that Edmund's father, 
John the testator, was also a son of Lord Dudley. Thus, it 
seems reasonably clear that the claim of the family, evidenced 
by the arms on this medallion of stained glass, to descend from 
the ancient Barons of Dudley was well founded. 

The Dudleys were evidently entitled to the sixth quarter in 
the shield — two blue lions on a gold field, the arms of Somery, 



King Henry VIII 
XVI century 

Morning Room 

and those of Grey and Hastings, which are in the third and 
fourth quarters. The arms on the escutcheon of pretence are 
those of John Dudley's wife Jane, daughter and heiress of Sir 
Edward Guilford. 

The two circular medallions with the Royal arms of j-jl-9<? ^z# 
Henry VIII in the central lights are of very special interest on Plate,. 
account of the clever lead work in the first and fourth quarters, 
and the charming chaplets with which they are encircled. It 
will be noticed that the glass painter has drilled holes in the 
pot-metal blue glass of the field to take the small pieces on 
which the fleurs-de-lis are painted and has inserted them into 
the blue without connecting leads to the sides of the shield, an 
extremely difficult piece of work. The lions, too, exhibit very 
good examples of abrasion from the ruby glass. 

It is not infrequently asked why the arms of France are 
placed, as here, in the first and fourth quarters of the ancient 
shield of England, thus giving them precedence over the lions 
of England. There is no certain answer to this question, but 
the probability is that Edward III, first of English kings to 
add the arms of France to the coat of England, an assumption, 
it is supposed, made in support of his claim to the sovereignty 
of that country, held that France, as between the nations, took 
precedence of England, and it is certain that the French Am- 
bassador came before the English Ambassador at the Imperial 

In the fourth light of this north window we see the arms of 
Sir William Parr, whose advancement at the Courts of the S£ - 
Tudor sovereigns was wholly due to the fact that his sister PL*t£ ' y 
Katherine became Queen Consort to Henry VIII. But for 
that event, he would have remained, like his ancestors, a coun- 
try gentleman of ancient lineage, living a quiet life at Kendal 


Heraldic Stained Glass 

in Westmorland free from the plots and jealousies of Courts 
and content with the petty state of a local kinglet. As things 
turned out, however, he had his share of trouble, for he became 
deeply involved in the ambitious designs of John Dudley, 
Duke of Northumberland, and joined him in proclaiming the 
unhappy Lady Jane as Queen on the death of Edward VI. 
Tried for treason, convicted and sentenced to death on the 
1 8th August 1553, he was attainted in blood and so lost all his 
honours — the Barony of Parr and Ros of Kendal, the Earldom 
of Essex, the Marquessate of Northampton and Knighthood of 
the Garter. Perhaps, as probably in the case of the Duke of 
Northumberland's sons (other than Guilford Dudley), Queen 
Mary had never intended that the sentence of death on Parr 
should be carried out; but, however this may be, he was re- 
leased from prison on the 31st December 1553, and, in the 
following month, he received a pardon. Part of his estates he 
got back, but not his honours until the accession of Queen 
Elizabeth brought him back to Court favour, and he was again 
created Marquess of Northampton and Knight of the Garter 
and made a Privy Councillor. The Barony of Parr and Ros of 
Kendal and the Earldom of Essex were not, however, restored 
to him. 

This panel bears evidence, on the face of it, of the time 
when it was painted, for the coronet is an Earl's, not that of a 
Marquess. Its date must be between 23rd December 1 543 , on 
which day Parr was created Earl of Essex, and 15th February 
1546-7, when he was made Marquess of Northampton for the 
first time : the Garter he originally received in March 1543. 

With regard to the workmanship of this panel, the Garter is 
formed of pot-metal blue glass with the motto, buckle and 
pendant painted on yellow glass in black enamel. The arms 




King Henry VIII 
XVI century 

Morning Room 

on the shield are partly painted in enamel colours, the remain- 
der being either pot-metal glass or done by the abrading pro- 
cess. The Earl's paternal coat, Parr, two blue bars in a silver 
field with an engrailed black border ', is followed by quarterings 
derived from heiresses with whom his ancestors had married : 
among them are the arms of the powerful North Country 
Barons Ros of Kendal, gules, three water bougets silver, a family 
which, towards the end of the fourteenth century, ended in an 
heiress whose marriage to Sir William Parr, Lord of Parr in 
Lancashire, brought the Honour and Castle of Kendal to the 
Parrs. Then we have the coat of Fitzhugh — three chevronels 
braced in base and a chief, all gold, in a blue field — which came 
to the Parrs by the marriage of Elizabeth, heiress of Henry, 
Lord Fitzhugh, to another Sir William Parr, grandfather of the 
William commemorated in this interesting stained glass me- 

In the great bay window of seven lights is a varied and ex- 
ceptionally interesting display of old English heraldry of the 
fourteenth and fifteenth centuries — royal, ecclesiastical, baro- 
nial and civic. 

In the first light is a shield of mid-fifteenth century date 
showing the arms of Edmund Lacy, who, after a distinguished 
career, which commenced with the Mastership of University fi. A^BS 
College, Oxford, and included the Deanship of the Chapel 
Royal and the Bishopric of Hereford, became Bishop of 
Exeter in 1420 and held that See until his death in 1455. 

It will be noticed that his family arms — three swans' necks 
erased silver on blue — are impaled with the arms — a sword 
crossed by two keys in a red field — a coat which is usually asso- 
ciated with the See of Winchester — a sword in pale crossed by 
two keys in saltire on red. This shield is happily composed : the 


Heraldic Stained Glass 

drawing of the swans' necks in the space available for them is 
remarkably good, and the colours are rich and deep in tone. 
Having regard to the date of this glass, circa 1420, it is, 
necessarily, all pot-metal, the charges on separate pieces of 
glass leaded into the field. Had it been a century later, it 
would have been possible to have dispensed with all the lead 
work except the central line and the border lines, the charges 
being formed by abrasion in the manner already mentioned. 
It is certain, however, that much of the rich, jewel-like effect 
produced by the contrast of the solid black lead lines with the 
transparent pieces of coloured glass would have been lost by 
the change of process. 

In the second light we see a very fine example of ancient 
S2~9o- glass — a shield with the ancient arms of France — azure, semee 
>TtC( ' of fleurs-de-lis gold — a simple coat but difficult to render satis- 
factorily from the artistic point of view by reason of its sim- 
plicity. The modern draftsman will, too often, take infinite 
pains to make the fleurs-de-lis all exactly the same in size and 
shape : but the old men knew better. They understood the 
value of variety without losing sight of harmony, and so the 
charges are variously disposed in the field, though each charge 
represents the same object. 

This shield was painted about the year 1360 and, no doubt, 
was one of a series comprising the arms of France, England 
and barons of the fourteenth century. Its place of origin 
is unknown, though it was, certainly, in England. Dagnam 
Park in Essex was its last English home, where it was one of 
a large collection of ancient painted glass got together with 
much judgment and skill by Sir Thomas Neave, Baronet, 
during the first quarter of the nineteenth century. It is, 
however, not improbable that this shield may have been in 




Sir William Parr 
XVI centurv 


Morning Room 

a window of the ancient manor house at Dagnam, demolished 
about the end of the eighteenth century, when the present 
mansion was built. 

A fifteenth-century shield occupies the third light, a work of ^ „jg .3 
quite exceptional interest both from the artistic and historical pcAT£ 
points of view. The glass is of high character, much pitted by 
the effects of age, and the blue is of that beautiful ultramarine 
tending to purple which one associates with the middle of the 
fifteenth century. The drawing of the lions is excellent and 
typical of the best work of the period, and the lead work is 
cleverly arranged. This shield was one of a series, comprising 
arms and badges, painted for Sir Roger Fiennes, a valiant 
knight greatly distinguished in the French wars, one of the 
heroes of Agincourt, and, in later years, Treasurer of the 
Household of Henry VI. 

The series was originally placed in the east window of the 
Chapel at Hurstmonceaux Castle, when that house was built 
by Sir Roger Fiennes about the year 1450. The arms in this 
shield are those of Sir Roger Fiennes — three gold lions rampant 
in a blue field — impaled with those of his wife Elizabeth Hol- 
land — a lion rampant guar dant between ten fleurs-de-lis all silver 
on blue. 

At Hurstmonceaux all this glass remained until 1708, when, 
upon the sale of the Castle by Thomas Lennard, Earl of Sussex, 
whose ancestor Sampson Lennard had married the heiress of 
the Fiennes family, it was removed from Hurstmonceaux, and, 
eventually, found its way to the ancient house of Belhus, near 
Aveley in Essex, where it was set up in the windows of the old 
porch under the Great Tower. 

The very splendid coat of Edward, Prince of Wales, com- n f 1 v ' fttr 
monly called the Black Prince, in the centre of the window, 


Heraldic Stained Glass 

merits close attention. It shows the Royal arms of England — 
France [ancient) and England quarterly — as used from about 
1340 to 1405, with the silver label of three points, first used by 
the Black Prince, which has, since his time, been the distin- 
guishing mark of the Princes of Wales. These arms, in them- 
selves merely the correct heraldry of the eldest son of the 
English King for the time being, had a special significance for 
the Black Prince, for, by his will, written in his own hand- 
writing the day before his death in 1376, he draws a distinction, 
in laying down precise directions as to his funeral and adorn- 
ment of his tomb, between his * shields for War and Peace.' 
His paternal coat he calls his shield ' pur la guerre ' and the 
three ostrich feathers in a black field his shield ' pur la paix/ 
meaning that, in actual war, he had used his paternal coat of 
arms, and for tournaments and similar sports of peace the 
ostrich feather shield. Both these shields, each repeated eight 
times in accordance with the Black Prince's will, are still to be 
seen on his tomb in Canterbury Cathedral, clear evidence of 
the real part which was played by heraldry in the lives of men 
in the Middle Ages. The construction of this shield is re- 
markable : note how the fleurs-de-lis are painted on lozenges 
of yellow glass leaded into the blue, while the lions are on 
oblong strips of yellow leaded-up with similar strips of ruby 
between them. The boldness of design, whereby natural form 
is accommodated to necessity of space, shown in the drawing 
of the lion in the bottom of the third quarter of the shield, tells 
of a master hand. 
trQ. ~$d - f r ^^ ie sn ^ e ^ °f France — three fleurs-de-lis only in a blue field, 
. n usually called ' France modern ' to distinguish it from the 
more ancient French coat of fleurs-de-lis without number—- 
in the next light, is a fellow to the Fiennes shield already de- 



Edmund Lacy 

XV century 



John Grandison 
XV century 

Morning Room 

scribed, is of the same date, and has a similar history. It, too, 
came from the Chapel at Hurstmonceaux Castle to Belhus. 

The quality and tone of the glass of which it is made are the 
same as those of the Fiennes shield, and we need only note, 
in addition, the correct spacing of the fleurs-de-lis in the blue 
glass of the field. 

Before leaving, for the time, the subject of Royal heraldry 
in this window, we may notice the two examples of fourteenth- 
century glass in the lower lights both showing France (ancient) 
and England quarterly, and both, I think, belonging to the 
reign of Edward III, although it is possible that the shield in 
the fifth light may belong to Richard IPs time, but not later. ? L 

The shape of these shields, long and kite-like, may usefully 
be compared with the fifteenth-century shields in the top 
lights of this window, for they illustrate the gradual change 
through the centuries in shield shapes, those of the twelfth £~2 
and thirteenth centuries being very long and narrow, those of 
the fourteenth century slightly shorter and more bowed at the 
sides, the fifteenth-century examples much shorter and wider 
still, while, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the 
original spade-like shape has almost been lost. 

As to the places of origin of these two shields, that in the 
left-hand light was originally in the great window of the Hall 
at Ashridge in Hertfordshire, while that on the right was in 
the collection made by the late Mr. Dendy Sadler, R.A., the 
well-known painter of historical subjects. 

Returning to the old glass in the upper part of the window, 
there is a medallion of fifteenth-century date in the sixth light 
with the arms of the City of Norwich — a castle with three plfrT 
towers silver and a lion passant guardant gold in base, all in a red 
field — on an ornamental shaped shield within a circular chaplet 

b 9 

Heraldic Stained Glass 

with one of King Edward IV's badges — a sun in splendour — at 
the top and a similar badge at each side. 

As the Eastern Counties of England were strongly Yorkist 
in sympathy during the Wars of the Roses, we can understand 
why the citizens of Norwich adorned a panel of their arms 
with Yorkist symbols. The coloured and richly diapered fill— 
ings-in between the shield and the chaplet afford a note of 
colour contrast — the red of the shield and the blue of the 

The original home of this panel was Costessey Hall, near 
Norwich, and was, no doubt, placed there by Sir Henry Jer- 
ningham, ancestor of the Lords Stafford, when he built that 
house in Tudor days, as a compliment to his rich and influen- 
tial neighbour, the City of Norwich. 
j%2 -fo-6 The t0 P °f tne l ast light is occupied by a fifteenth-century 
"JB.& shield of the arms of Grandison — a family from which has 
sprung many men distinguished in England's story for 
prowess in arms and in learning. The original arms of Grandi- 
son are paly of six, silver and blue, on a bend gules, three gold 
eaglets, but when John Grandison became Bishop of Exeter, in 
1327, he changed the middle eaglet on the bend to a gold mitre, 
as we see it before us here. This shield, being of the fifteenth 
century, cannot be contemporary with Bishop Grandison, who 
died in 1369, and we may safely assume that it is one of a set 
painted a century after his time. Bishop Grandison 's name 
is held in benediction at Exeter for his extensive building 
works in connection with the Cathedral ; the nave was com- 
pleted by him with such grandeur of conception and craftsman- 
ship that he felt impelled, when writing to Pope John XXII, 
to say that, when completed, his cathedral should exceed every 
other of its kind in England and France. Among his other 




Kingdom of France 
XIV century 

I & 

King Edward III 
XIV century 


Morning Room 

works at Exeter he erected the Bishop's throne, that wonderful 
sheaf of clustered pinnacles. 

In the third window, one of two lights, Royal heraldry of the 
Tudor period again greets us — a pair of shields of father and S& " 
son, Henry VIII and Edward, Prince of Wales, that only son pL^Tlf Ij 
from whose birth so much was hoped, and whose early death j^q^ -9 G * j /«2 
threw England into the throes of disputed successions to the p^ 4 r df (Sl 
crown and was one of the chief causes of much of the faction, 
bitterness and ill-will which characterised English social life 
for half a century after. 

Wroxton Abbey, near Banbury in Oxfordshire, from the 
great Hall of which these panels came, was rebuilt in 161 8 by 
Sir William Pope, Baronet, on the site of a Priory of Augus- 
tinian Canons founded in the time of King John. The Priory 
buildings were destroyed by fire after the Dissolution, though 
some slight remains are incorporated in the present house. 
The Priory was sold in 1537 to William Pope of Dedington in 
Oxfordshire, the ancestor of Thomas Pope, third Earl of 
Downe, one of whose daughters and co-heiresses, Frances, 
married Francis North, Baron Guilford, Lord Keeper of the 
Great Seal, and so Wroxton Abbey was brought to the North 
family. There can be no doubt that the painted glass of 
Tudor times, including these panels, was transferred from the 
older building to the Jacobean Hall in 161 8. 

The design and workmanship of these two magnificent 
panels are worthy of close attention. The exquisite detail and 
clear definition of the Renaissance scroll work in which the 
shield is set are remarkable to a high degree, while the clever 
insertion of the fleurs-de-lis in the blue field of the arms of 
France and the abraded work in the arms of England evidence 
the utmost technical skill in the glass painter. If one may 


Heraldic Stained Glass 
draw comparisons between things which are all so beautiful, it 
may, I think, be said that these two panels are the finest 
examples of the glass painter's art in the collection. The de- 
sign of the crowns is somewhat unusual in certain respects : 
the crosses which rise from the circlets are not crosses patee, 
but crosses fleuree, and instead of the usual cross on the orb 
at top, we have a fleur-de-lis, variations which suggest that 
the painter of this glass had a foreign training. This is as one 
might expect, for there is every reason to believe that these 
and their companion panels to be noticed later were painted 
by Galyon Hone, a Flemish glass painter who settled in Eng- 
land early in the sixteenth century and who in 15 17 was living, 
with other artists in glass of Flemish nationality, in the Sanc- 
tuary of St. Thomas of Canterbury in Southward. This place 
of residence was selected by Hone and his friends as a refuge 
against the legal proceedings which were constantly instituted 
against them by the Company of Glaziers and Painters on 
glass of London. 

Jealousy of the foreigners, who were getting all the best 
contracts for glass painting in London and its neighbourhood, 
was the cause of these proceedings, and it was many a day 
before peace between the foreign and native painters came 
about. Galyon Hone was appointed King's Glazier in 15 17 
on the death of Barnard Flower, himself an alien in spite of 
his English-sounding name, and, in this capacity, he painted 
the great windows at Hampton Court Palace — Royal arms and 
badges with mottoes — all of which have long ago been dispersed, 
and did much work at Westminster for Henry VIII . In com- 
pany with other Flemings, he continued in 1527 the painted 
windows, which had been begun by Barnard Flower, at King's 
College Chapel, Cambridge, and the early sixteenth-century 




Sir Roger Fiennes 
XV century 

Kingdom of France 

XV century 


Morning Room 
heraldic glass at Chequers, near Wendover, presented to the 
nation by Lord and Lady Lee of Fareham as a country house 
for successive Prime Ministers of Great Britain, was also 
painted by this master craftsman of the Tudor period. 


Pl4T£ /3 

r - 



N the first of the two three-light windows are 
three panels of sixteenth-century glass, two 
from Belhus in Essex with the arms of Barrett 
quartering Belhus and Norris impaling Lovel, 
and one from Cassiobury with the arms of Grey. 
In speaking of the old glass in the Morning 
iloom, which originally came from Hurstmonceaux Castle, 
reference has already been made to the mansion of Belhus. 

This ancient house and the park in which it stands have been 
called Belhus from the earliest times, certainly for many a year 
before Alice, the sister and co-heiress of John Belhus, the last 
male of his house, married John Barrett of Hawkhurst in Kent. 
From this marriage descended the long line of Essex squires, 
Barretts and Barrett-Lennards, which has been seated at Bel- 
hus to the present time. One of them, John, built the present 
house at Belhus, on the site of the ancient Manor House, early 
in the sixteenth century, and it is he, and the family of his 
third wife Mary Norris, who are commemorated by the first 
and third shields, both of early sixteenth-century date, in this 
window. The first symbolizes the descent of the Barretts from 
the ancient lords of Belhus, whose name was identical with 
that of the manor which they held, while the third contains the 
arms of Sir Edward Norris and Frideswide his wife, daughter 
and co-heiress of Francis, Viscount Lovel — he who supported 
Lambert Simnel against Henry VII and was slain at the Battle 
of Stoke — parents of Mary Norris, John's third wife. Sir Ed- 
ward Norris of Yattendon in Berkshire belonged to the same 
family as the Norrises of Ockwells, or Ockholt, also in Berk- 
shire, where their old hall is still standing with its windows 
full of ancient heraldic glass of world-wide fame. The un- 
usual setting of both these shields from Belhus is boldly de- 



Edward the Black Prince 
XIV century 

The Library 

vised, the inner ornamental work in grisaille heightened with 
yellow stain contrasting with the coloured moulded outer bor- 
ders of geometrical form, blue in the one and yellow in the 

The arms on the shield in the central light are those of S£- 
Arthur Grey, 14th Baron Grey of Wilton, K.G., who, after an PL 4 T£ Ity 
early military training and some years of service in the French 
wars and in Border warfare against the Scots, was sent, in 1580, 
as Lord Deputy to Ireland, taking with him the poet Edmund 
Spenser as his Secretary. After two years of arduous and 
thankless struggling with the difficulties of his position, he was 
recalled, at his own earnest request, and retired to his house at 
Whaddon in Buckinghamshire. There, for the remainder of 
his days, he lived a retired life, a retirement unbroken except 
by occasional visits from Queen Elizabeth and when he sat as 
one of the Commissioners for the trial of Mary, Queen of Scots. 
He was married three times, his second wife being Jane Sibylla, 
daughter of Sir Richard Morrison, a marriage which accounts 
for the finding of this panel at Cassiobury. 

The arms on the shield in this panel, which is composed of 
enamel painting and abraded ruby glass, are those of Grey of 
Wilton — barry of 6 argent and azure, and a label gules y followed 
by fifteen quarterings with the arms of some of the most famous 
Baronial families of mediaeval times — Fitzhugh, Hastings, 
Cantilupe, Braose, de Valence, Montchesney, Fitzosbert and 

In the second three-light window we notice three sixteenth- 9P-/ 2 

century medallions, the first of which contains the arms of 
Ratcliff, a famous family which looms large in the history of PL 
Tudor times. 

This shield is commemorative of the 5th Earl of Sussex, 

J 5 

Heraldic Stained Glass 

Robert Ratcliff, K.G., who married Bridget, daughter of Sir 
Charles Morrison of Cassiobury. 

He was not remarkable among the prominent men of his day 
except for bravery as a soldier, and, had he not married into 
the Morrison family, his arms would not have been found at 
Cassiobury, or, probably, elsewhere other than in his own an- 
cestral halls. From 1593, when he succeeded to the Earldom 
of Sussex, to his death in 1629, ne was employed in various 
military expeditions — in 1596 at the siege of Cadiz, the capture 
of which town is said to have been largely due to his efforts — 
and on ceremonial occasions, such as when he went to Scot- 
land in 1594 as Ambassador Extraordinary to assist at the bap- 
tism of James Fs eldest son Henry and to treat of other matters. 
To his credit, be it said, he was a patron of literary men, while, 
on the other hand, he is said to have ill-treated his wife Bridget 
— a lady described by John Manningham, a diarist of the time, 
as * a very goodley and comely personage, of an excellent pre- 
sence and a rare wit.' 

The Garter and some of the quarterings are enamel-painted; 
the rest of the panel is in abraded work. 

The second light contains a medallion from the cloisters at 
Cassiobury with the arms of Capel — a lion rampant between 
crosslets fitchee quartering the chevron and torteaux of Sir 
Richard de Capele, set in a coloured chaplet and Renaissance 
scroll work with the date 1553. The first member of the Capel 
family of whom much is known is Sir William Capel, draper 
of London who was Lord Mayor of that City in 1503 . To his 
son, Sir Giles Capel of Raine in Essex, this panel, no doubt, 
refers ; he was the lineal ancestor of Arthur, Lord Capel of 
Hadham, who, in March 1648-9, sealed his life-long loyalty to 
Charles I by laying down his life on Tower Hill. He married 




The City of Norwich 
XV century 

The Library 

Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Sir Charles Morrison of 
Cassiobury, and so we find the arms of his ancestor in the 
cloisters there. The lions in the first and fourth quarters of 
the shield are excellent examples of abraded work, and there is 
much vigorous Renaissance decoration in the chaplet and car- 

In the third light of this window is another panel from Cas- 
siobury, a companion to that in the first light. The Garter and pc A " 
several of the heraldic quarterings are in enamel colours, 
though, like the Ratcliff shield, it contains some abraded and 
pot-metal work. The arms are those of George Clifford, 3rd 
Earl of Cumberland, K.G. — chequy or and azure, a Jesse gules — 
with seven quarterings, among them the punning arms of 
Flint — three white flints in a green field — and the Clifford 
1 augmentation ' — three chain shot. This George Clifford, 
born in 1558, had a natural inclination to the study of mathe- 
matics and geography, which led him to take an interest in 
navigation, then, so far as ocean sailing was concerned, in its 
infancy. He became one of the most notorious of the Eliza- 
bethan sea-dogs, fitting out, mostly at his own expense, one 
expedition after another, some dozen in all, having for their 
principal object the plundering of Spanish ships, especially 
the Plate fleet, even in times of peace. Such doings were 
esteemed meritorious rather than the reverse in the sixteenth 
century, and so this Earl's buccaneering cruises did not pre- 
vent him from making a brave show at Court, where his hand- 
some person, engaging manners and ready wit commended 
him to Queen Elizabeth. On one occasion it is said that the 
Queen gave him one of her gloves as a mark of her esteem, 
and he certainly wears a glove in his hat in the picture, after 
Nicholas Hilliard, in the National Portrait Gallery. His con- 

c 17 

Heraldic Stained Glass 

nection with Cassiobury was rather remote, but it seems to have 
been thought sufficient to warrant the setting up of his arms in a 
window there : it was confined to the fact that his father-in- 
law, Francis, Earl of Bedford, married, as his second wife, 
Bridget widow of Sir Charles Morrison of Cassiobury. 

The four remaining windows, of two lights apiece, in the 
Library contain sixteenth-century oval medallions — four from 
the great hall window at Ashridge Park and four from the 
cloisters, Cassiobury. The general design of all these beauti- 
ful panels is the same, though they differ slightly in the detail 
of their settings. The arms are painted on backgrounds of 
elaborate cartouche work heightened with yellow stain and 
enriched with touches of enamel colour. Three are dated, and 
others bear the names of the families commemorated. 

The story of Ashridge is soon told. In the year 1283 
Edmund, Earl of Cornwall, brought to England some friars of 
the Order of Bonhommes and settled them at Ashridge, on the 
borders of Herts and Bucks. To this fraternity he gave his 
Manors of Ashridge, Pitstone, Little Gaddesden, and Hemel 
Hempstead and all that pertained to them, in particular ' the 
close of the Park of the Manor of Ashridge within the parish 
churches of the blessed Peter of Berkhamstead and Pitstone/ 
showing that there was a park at Ashridge in those early times. 

At Ashridge, within the park, the Bonhommes made them a 
dwelling with a great hall and Chapel, and there they lived 
until the Dissolution of the Religious Houses by Henry VIII. 
Thereafter, Ashridge remained the property of the Crown un- 
til it was given by Edward VI to his sister, the Princess Eliza- 
beth, who occupied the house until her accession to the throne, 
and visited it, from time to time, all through her reign. By 
Queen Elizabeth the estate of Ashridge — the ancient house of 




King Edward III 
XIV century 

The Library 

the friars with the park around it — was granted in January 1575 
to John Dudley and John Ayscough, and they, in the following 
month, conveyed the whole estate to Henry, Lord Cheney, and 
the Lady Jane, his wife. The Cheneys held Ashridge until 

1602, when it was granted to one Ralph Marshall, by whom, in 

1603, it was conveyed to Randolph Crew and Thomas Cham- 
berlain. In 1604 the mansion was bought by Thomas Egerton, 
Baron of Ellesmere, Lord Chancellor of England, and one of 
the greatest judges who have ever sat in the English Court of 

One of Lord Ellesmere 's descendants, an owner of Ashridge, 
is worthy of a word of remembrance — Francis, 3rd Duke of 
Bridgwater (173 6- 1802). He may be called the father of Brit- 
ish inland navigation, for he devoted the whole of his vast re- 
sources for several years — reserving for his own use four hun- 
dred pounds a year only — to the construction of canals, one 
from his estate at Worsley, Lancashire, to Manchester, which 
was afterwards extended to the Mersey, and others connect- 
ing London with Bristol, Liverpool and Hull, undertakings the 
value of which to commerce before the era of railways can 
scarcely be exaggerated. The Duke of Bridgwater devised 
Ashridge to the second Earl Brownlow, in whose descendants 
it remains. 

It is not likely that the ancient house of the Bonhommes was 
materially altered by its lay owners after the expulsion of the 
friars, and we are, fortunately, able to gain a good idea of it as 
it existed in 1790. 

In The Topographer y Volume II (London, 1790), a book con- 
taining valuable and detailed information about English topo- 
graphy and genealogy, is an account of the history of Ashridge 
and its owners, illustrated by an engraving of the old house. 

J 9 

Heraldic Stained Glass 

From these we learn that the house consisted of a great hall 
with wings at each end and additional buildings on either side 
of the wings. 

Passing through the screens of the hall, the cloisters were 
reached ; over them, and in the wings and other buildings, 
were various rooms and galleries, the windows of which are 
described as being full of coats of arms, most of which are now 
in the windows at Ronaele Manor. The four medallions of 
ancient glass from Ashridge now under consideration must 
have been inserted, among many others, no doubt, in the win- 
dows of the old house during the ownership of Lord and Lady 
Cheney, and transferred on its demolition to the palatial man- 
sion, still standing, then built on its site. 

Taking these medallions in the order in which they are set in 
the Library windows — the ornamental work on which the 
shields are placed is of the same general type, and, in the first 
two panels, it is identical in every respect. It is clear, therefore, 
that they are companions, painted by the same hand and at the 
same time. 

The arms in the first panel are those of William Paulet, 3rd 
Marquess of Winchester, impaled with those of his wife Agnes, 
the elder daughter of William, Baron Howard of Effingham in 

The Paulets, a family of ancient descent, were originally 
settled at Paulet in Somersetshire. One of them, Sir John 
Paulet, married, towards the end of the fourteenth century, the 
heiress of a Devonshire knight, Sir John Creedy of Creedy, a 
match which seems to have laid the foundations of the fortune 
of the house. From the elder of Sir John Pauleys two sons 
descended the Earls Poulett , and , from the younger, the Dukes of 
Bolton (a title now extinct) and the Marquesses of Winchester. 




Edward, Prince of Wales 
XVI century 

The Library 

The Paulets became one of the most prominent families of 
Tudor times, and, in the person of Sir Amias Paulet, the 
trusted servant of Queen Elizabeth, to whom was granted the 
custody of Mary of Scotland after the discovery of the plot to 
free her from Tutbury, and in that of Sir William Paulet, 
who, as he himself said, ' by being a willow, not an oak,' man- 
aged to remain in favour at Court and to retain the high office 
of Lord Treasurer of England during the reigns of Edward VI, 
Mary I, and Elizabeth, both branches of the family continued 
to flourish and grow rich all through that difficult period. 

The determination of the abeyance of the ancient Barony of 
St. John of Basing and Poynings in favour of Sir William 
Paulet, in 1539, was the first step in his uniformly successful 
career, and, in 155 1, he was created Marquess of Winchester 
and made a Knight of the Garter. By his marriage with Eliza- 
beth, one of the daughters of Lord Mayor Capel, ancestor of 
the Capels of Cassiobury , a connecting link between that house 
and Ashridge was established, and we shall see in the bay 
window of the Stair Hall a shield of his arms from Cassiobury. 

The shield now before us is that of his grandson, William ^ *2L - 9d 
Paulet , third Marquess of Winchester . He was rather a man of p^ * \g } & 

letters and leisure than an ambitious politician and frequenter 
of the Court, and he is, chiefly, remembered as one of the many 
courtly versifiers of his day. The arms on the shield are those 
of Paulet — three swords in pile on a black field — followed by 
fifteen quarterings, among which we may distinguish the arms 
of Creedy in the second quarter and those of Poynings and 
St . John in the fifth and ninth quarters . This splendid array of 
heraldry is impaled with the arms of Howard and fifteen quar- 
terings for the Marquess's wife, Agnes, a daughter of William, 
Lord Howard of Effingham, K.G., the famous Lord High Ad- 


Heraldic Stained Glass 

miral. Noteworthy in the Howard arms is the tiny shield on 
the bend bearing a demi- lion pierced with an arrow within a tres- 
sure of Scotland, an augmentation of merit granted to the grand- 
father of the Marchioness, Thomas, Earl of Surrey, afterwards 
Duke of Norfolk, the leader of the English forces at Flodden 
Field, and his descendants, in remembrance of the signal victory 
over the Scots won in that the last of the great border fights be- 
tween England and Scotland . The third Marquess of Winchester 
died in 1598, and we find his coat of arms and that of his wife 
in the windows of the old house at Ashridge in 1578. The 
writer of the article upon Ashridge in that interesting old book 
The Topographer describes this medallion which he saw in 
1790 — ' the arms of Powlet with quarterings, impaling How- 
ard and quarterings, and with the date 1578/ 

With regard to the construction of this shield, it will be 
noticed that it was made up of four pieces of glass upon which 
the various coats of arms were painted in enamel colours. 
This plan was adopted by the Elizabethan glass painter to se- 
cure clear definition of the heraldry, for, if he had used the 
ancient pot-metal process — each colour on a separate piece of 
glass of its colour — the amount of lead work required would 
have been so great as to make it difficult to avoid confusion be- 
tween the arms in the small space at his disposal. 

The shield in the next light is painted by the same process 
and also bears the date 1578. The arms are those of Knolles of 
Oxfordshire — azure , crusilly and across moline voided gold — 
quartering three red roses on a silver chevron in a red field , for 
Knolles of Lincoln. 

Like so many English families of ancient descent, the for- 
tunes of the house of Knolles were laid by a distinguished 
Londoner, Sir Thomas Knolles, Citizen and Grocer, who, 




King Henry VIII 
XVI century 

The Library 

upon two occasions, in 1399 and 1410, was Lord Mayor of 
London. Sir Thomas is best known in the history of the City 
as the rebuilder of the Guildhall and of the Church of St. 
Antholin in Watling Street, London, in which church he is 
buried. It is probable that Sir Thomas was a nephew of Sir 
Robert Knolles, that great military commander who made such 
havoc among the French in the wars of Edward III, he who is 
described by Froissart as ' the most able and skilful man of 
arms in all the companies/ though he seems to have been 
somewhat of a freebooter, fighting rather for his own hand and 
for his own enrichment than for his Sovereign's benefit. 

The great grandson of the Lord Mayor, Robert Knolles, 
seems to have begun that long association of his family with 
the English Court of which the late Sir William Thomas 
Knollys, K.C.B., P.C., Treasurer of the Household to the late 
King Edward VII when Prince of Wales, and who died Gentle- 
man Usher of the Black Rod in 1883, was a conspicuous ex- 
ample. Robert Knolles 's first appointment at Court was made 
in 1488 when he became Gentleman-in- Waiting to Arthur, 
Prince of Wales : in 1500 his name appears as one of the Ush- 
ers of the Royal Chamber, an office which he held for many 
years. The tradition of Court service was carried on by his 
sons Francis and Henry, both of whom were in constant em- 
ployment during the reigns of Edward VI and Queen Eliza- 

There is no doubt that the shield of the arms of Knolles in 
this window refers to Robert's son, Francis, who was in high 
favour at Court, and must often have visited Ashridge in at- 
tendance on the Queen. 

Francis Knolles, born about 15 14, had a busy and not alto- 
gether uneventful life at Court, in the course of which he 


Heraldic Stained Glass 

occupied various lucrative offices — Chamberlain of the Royal 
Household and Captain of the Halberdiers amongst them. He 
was made Privy Councillor in 1558 ; in 1566 he was sent to Ire- 
land to help in pacifying the country, but with little effect ; and 
in 1568, when Mary, Queen of Scots, sought protection in 
England, she was put under his wardship at Carlisle Castle, 
and, subsequently, at Bolton Castle and Tutbury. Sir Francis, 
who was created Knight of the Garter in 1593 , and who, in the 
course of his life, acquired by grant from the Crown several 
valuable manorial estates, among them Rotherfleld Greys, near 
Henley, and Caversham, both in Oxfordshire, and Cholsey in 
Berkshire, died in 1596, leaving his large family of sons to 
carry on the Knolles tradition of Court service. All of them 
were in high favour with Queen Elizabeth and prominent fig- 
ures in Court life during her reign. One of them, William, may 
be said to have stepped into his father's shoes on his death. 
The Queen extended to him the same confidence which she 
had uniformly shown in his father and made him Controller of 
her Household and a Privy Councillor. * One that appertain- 
ed to us in blood,' she called him when he was sent on a mis- 
sion to James VI of Scotland. Honours — Baron Knolles of 
Rotherfleld Greys, Viscount Wallingford and, finally, Earl of 
Banbury and Knight of the Garter — and offices — Commis- 
sioner of the Treasury, Master of the Court of Wards and many 
others — rewarded his services to Elizabeth and James I. He 
died in 1632, leaving behind him, in the circumstances attend- 
ant upon the birth of his two sons, the materials for one of the 
best known of the many romances of the Peerage. 

All the heraldry which we have, hitherto, seen in these win- 
dows has been reminiscent of prominent statesmen, soldiers 
and courtiers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. We come 




John Barrett of Belhus 
XVI century 

The Library 

now to a shield of the arms of Sir Edward Coke, who, although 
he is best known as an eminent lawyer, was also a great patriot 
and vindicator of public right against excess of kingly pre- 
rogative. Called to the Bar in 1578, he speedily distinguished 
himself as a learned lawyer and effective advocate. Soon he at- 
tracted the notice of Lord Burghley, ever on the look-out for 
budding talent, and, in 1592, he was appointed Solicitor Gene- 
ral, and Attorney- General in the following year. It is likely, 
too, that his wealth, derived from his father and from the 
dowry of thirty thousand pounds which he received with his 
first wife, Bridget Paston, was a factor in his rapid rise to emi- 
nence : at least, it tended to preserve him from temptation to 
crooked ways in a corrupt age and to retain that independence 
which characterised all his actions. 

There was no break in his successful career in the early part 
of the reign of James I, for he was appointed, successively, 
Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas and Lord Chief 
Justice of England. The uprightness and impatience of inter- 
ference by king and courtiers with the judicial Bench which he 
showed as Chief Justice was not, however, to the taste of King 
James, the Prince of Wales and Buckingham, and so, in 161 6, 
he fell into disgrace at Court, and was deprived of the Chief 

The remainder of his public life was wholly concerned with 
maintenance of the rights of the people against encroachments 
upon them by the Stuart Dynasty. In 162 1 he was committed 
to the Tower of London for supporting the privileges of the 
House of Commons, and, so fearful was the Court party of his 
influence in public affairs, that an attempt was made in the 
first year of Charles I to prevent him from sitting as member 
of Parliament for Buckinghamshire, where he lived, by the 

D 25 

Heraldic Stained Glass 
curious device of appointing him Sheriff of that County. How- 
ever, he was elected in 1628 as member for Bucks, and strongly 
supported the Commons in their struggles with the King : one 
of his last public acts was the framing of the famous Petition of 

In 1633 Coke died at his house at Stoke Poges in Bucks, and 
was buried at Tittleshall Church, Norfolk, under a splendid 
altar tomb bearing his effigy clad in his robes as Lord Chief 
Justice of England. 

In this shield, the heraldry of which is painted in enamel 
c $0~jn colours, with richly varied yellow stain, the arms of Sir Ed- 
p^ft7L£( ward Coke— party per pale gules and azure , three silver eagles 
displayed— together with three quarterings, are impaled with 
the arms of Cecil with five quarterings. This impalement sym- 
bolizes Coke's marriage with his second wife Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Cecil, first Earl of Exeter, and widow of Sir 
William Hatton, a marriage which turned out unhappily, and 
eventuated in 161 6 in the lady's refusal to live with her hus- 

The next panel is a companion, in every respect, to the one 
last described. It commemorates the marriage in 1564 of 
PL 'ATg'Ji' Thomas Cecil, afterwards first Earl of Exeter, to Dorothy, a 
daughter and co-heiress of John Nevill, Lord Latimer, a lady 
who is described, at the age of fifteen, by her brother-in-law, 
Sir Henry Percy, in a letter to Sir William Cecil, as * so good 
and vertuous, as hard it is to find such a sparke of youth in this 

This Thomas Cecil, the ancestor of the Marquesses of Exe- 
ter, was the eldest son of the great Lord Burghley. After a 
somewhat wayward youth, which occasioned great anxiety to 
his grave father, he settled down to domestic life, and little is 




Lord Grey of Wilton 
XVI century 

The Library 

heard of him for some years after his marriage. He earned the 
praise of the Commander-in-Chief, the Earl of Sussex, for 
voluntary service during the suppression of the Catholic Rising 
of 1569. Again, as a volunteer, in Scotland in 1573, he was 
present at the Siege of Edinburgh. He was active in promoting 
the pageants and festivities which were a marked feature of 
Queen Elizabeth's memorable visit to Kenilworth Castle, 
described so vividly by Sir Walter Scott in Kenilworth. He 
saw military service in the Low Countries and was Governor 
of the Brill from 1585 to 1587. As his father's representative 
while the old statesman lived, he saw to the building and fur- 
nishing of Burghley House, which afterwards became his own 
and the principal seat of the Earls and Marquesses of Exeter, 
his descendants, until the present time. During his father's 
lifetime he had but little advancement in the political world, 
and it is supposed that Lord Burghley himself stood in his 
son's way. This idea receives some confirmation from the fact 
that, soon after Lord Burghley 's death, which brought him, 
besides Burghley, large estates in Rutland, Lincolnshire and 
Northamptonshire, he received many marks of the Queen's 
favour — the most important of which was his appointment as 
President of the Council of the North, an office of considerable 
importance, and one requiring constant vigilance against re- 
newals of Catholic hostility to the Elizabethan settlement of 
religious affairs. Severity in enforcement of the penal laws 
against Catholics marked his tenure of office in the North : he 
swept the country for missals, other books of Church offices 
and vestments, and, by the imposition of heavy fines, forced 
the weaker ones to attend the new services in their Parish 
When James VI of Scotland became King of England, he 


Heraldic Stained Glass 

was entertained, on his way south, with great magnificence at 
Burghley, hospitality which was eventually rewarded with the 
Earldom of Exeter and other offices. 

Dorothy, Countess of Exeter, died in 1609, and Earl Thomas 
married in the following year Frances Brydges, daughter of 
Lord Chandos, who survived him by many years. He died in 
1623 : hi s tomb, with his effigy and that of his first wife — 
space being left for the figure of his second wife, who is, how- 
ever, not buried with him but in Winchester Cathedral — may 
be seen in the Chapel of St. John the Baptist in Westminster 

It will be noticed that the arms of Nevill on this shield, like 
those of the Marquess of Winchester in another window of this 
room, are painted in enamel colours on white glass ; this was 
done for the same reason as that for which the enamel process 
was adopted for the Winchester shield — on account of the 
number and complication of the various quarterings. 

In the next two-light window we come to another pair of 
\j3/ 9&~) / companion medallions of the sixteenth century. The shield 
on the first of these, painted mainly on abraded glass, bears the 
arms of Manners — two golden bars in a blue field and a chief 
quarterly azure and gules, in the first and fourth two fleurs-de-lis 
and in the second and third, a lion passant guardant all gold — 
followed by fifteen quarterings, which are but a selection from 
the many coats which the family of Manners is entitled to 
quarter, and was so even as far back as the sixteenth century. 
The fleurs-de-lis and lions in the chief, which, originally, was 
plain red, commemorate in interesting fashion the marriage 
of George Manners, Lord Ros, father of the first Earl of Rut- 
land, with Anne St. Ledger, whose mother was the Princess 
Anne, sister of King Edward IV. 




Sir Edward Norris 
XVI century 

The Library 

As this shield comes from the windows of the cloisters at 
Cassiobury, we must seek for some family alliance between the 
Manners family and that of the owners of that estate, which 
may explain its presence there. 

There were two marriages between Manners and Capel, 
both before the marriage of Arthur, Lord Capel, with Eliza- 
beth Morrison which brought Cassiobury into the Capel family. 
Sir Henry Capel, grandson of the Lord Mayor, married Anne, 
sister of Thomas Manners, first Earl of Rutland ; and his 
nephew, another Sir Henry Capel, married Katherine, daugh- 
ter of the same Earl. It is likely that the last mentioned of 
these alliances was the one that gave occasion for the painting 
of this shield. The Capels, at the time of that marriage, were 
seated at Raine, near Braintree, in Essex, and we may reason- 
ably surmise that the original home of this coat of Manners was 
the Old Hall at Raine, and that it was brought thence to Cas- 
siobury when Arthur Capel married the Morrison heiress. 

The last and eighth panel from Cassiobury in the Library 
contains the arms of Clinton — six crosslets fitchee sable in a sil- &3- 
ver field and a blue chief with two golden mullets pierced — quar- pLATE^M 
tering the coat of Say — quarterly or and gules — a record of the 
marriage of John, Lord Clinton, a great soldier in the days of 
Edward III, with Idonea Say, the eldest co-heiress of her 
brother William, Lord Say. These are the arms of Henry 
Clinton, second Earl of Lincoln, whose marriage with Eliza- 
beth, daughter of Sir Richard Morrison of Cassiobury, a second 
marriage for both husband and wife, affords a sufficient 
explanation for the finding of this coat of Clinton at that 

In this instance, the simplicity of the arms of Say enabled 
the painter to use the ancient pot-metal process, while, in the 


Heraldic Stained Glass 

case of the arms of Clinton, as pronounced colour was con- 
fined to the chief, he employed enamel colours for the painting 
of that coat. 

In the last two-light window in the Library are two more 
medallions from Ashridge — one with the shield of Dudley, and 
the other containing the arms of Wentworth of Wentworth 
Woodhouse in Yorkshire. 

The fine left-hand oval contains the arms of Ambrose Dud- 
ley, Earl of Warwick, and his third wife, Anne Russell, with the 
Pl-ftT& ^k date 1578. The twenty-four quarterings which comprise the 
impaled shield are made mainly by the process of abrasion on 
pot-metal glass, and the medallion has — in addition to the Re- 
naissance strap work cartouche — two heraldic supporters, a 
goat and the chained bear of the Dudleys. The device carved 
on the wall of the Beauchamp Tower during the imprisonment 
of the five brothers in the Tower of London includes a bear 
and a lion supporting the ragged staff, with the name ' John 
Dudle ' below. This design is surrounded by a chaplet of 
roses for Ambrose, oak leaves for Robert (robur — an oak), gilly- 
flowers for Guilford, and honeysuckle for Henry. The whole 
is enclosed within a square moulded border, and at foot is an 
inscription, only partly legible, explanatory of the design. 

There is little to tell of Ambrose Dudley's career, and the 
little there is, is due more to Queen Elizabeth's favour than to 
his own merits. 

Thus he was given the command of the English Expedition- 
ary Force sent by the Queen in 1562 to the aid of the French 
Huguenots, a project which failed, but not owing to any fault 
on Warwick's part ; he did not distinguish himself, but, on the 
other hand, he did nothing blameworthy. 

In his later years he was created a Privy Councillor and 



PLATE 1 6 

Robert Ratcliff, Earl of Sussex 
XVI century 

The Library 

Lieutenant of the Order of the Garter and he was a member 
of the tribunal which tried Mary, Queen of Scots, in 1586 : in 
1590 he died. 

As often happens in such cases, we cannot be absolutely cer- 
tain why Ambrose Dudley's arms were set up at Cassiobury. 
He was not directly connected by blood or marriage with the 
Morrisons or Capels, and it may be that he owed the compli- 
ment merely to the fact that he was in waiting on the Queen on 
the occasion of one of her many progresses through the Home 
Counties which took her by way of Cassiobury. It is, however, 
possible that indirect relationship by marriage may have been 
the cause, for the second wife of his father-in-law, Francis 
Russell, Earl of Bedford, was the widow of Sir Richard Mor- 
rison, first secular owner of Cassiobury. 

In the splendid fifteenth-century chapel, commonly called 
the Beauchamp Chapel, at St. Mary's Church, Warwick, Am- 
brose Dudley lies entombed under an arched monument of 
Renaissance character, a marked contrast, from the architec- 
tural point of view, to the tomb in the same chapel commemo- 
rative of its munificent founder, Richard Beauchamp, Earl of 
Warwick, * the good Earl.' 

The panel with the arms of Wentworth and nineteen main j-n «. f# „ . 
quarterings has a special interest, because its presence in the 
windows of the old house at Ashridge is so easily explained, and 
its connection with the sixteenth-century owners of the house 
is so very clear. 

The arms are those of Sir Thomas Wentworth, Lord Went- 
worth, Lord Chamberlain to Edward VI, the father of Jane, 
Lady Cheney, who, as we have seen, was the wife of the owner 
of Ashridge in 1578, when these panels of heraldic glass were 
set up there. This Lord Wentworth was a distinguished man 

3 1 

Heraldic Stained Glass 

in his day, and came of a stock settled at Wentworth for gene- 
rations. The Wentworth arms on the shield — sable, a chevron 
between three leopards' faces or — are followed by the coats of 
many of the most famous of the mediaeval barons of England, 
Montfitchet, Fitzwarren, Tiptoft, Badlesmere, Nevill, Holland 
and de la Pole, to mention a few only, every one of which recalls 
some stirring scene in English history. 

This Lord Wentworth, like so many of the sons of the great 
landed families through the centuries, completed his educa- 
tion as a student at one of the Inns of Court, in his case, Gray's 
Inn. There, in the great bay window of the Hall, we see to- 
day a shield of his arms, almost identical with the shield 
before us, but differing slightly in the quarterings and in the 
ornamental work in which it is set ; and, in an ancient list of 
the lords spiritual and temporal admitted to Gray's Inn from 
the eleventh year of Henry VIII to the fifth year of Queen 
Mary, his name appears under the description Dns Wentworth. 




Sir Giles Capel 
XVI century 


HE upper lights of the two bay windows in this 
room are filled with heraldic panels from the 
Great Hall at Wroxton Abbey, all painted in the 
first half of the sixteenth century, and probably 
the work of Galyon Hone — the ' Kynge's Glass- 
yer ' — to whom we have already referred in 

speaking of the large Royal panels in the Morning Room, or of 

one of his Flemish companions settled in London. 

The First Bay Window 

The arms of Henry VIII in the left-hand light claim atten- -.^ , ^ <* 

tion for the uniformly high character of the work throughout 
the panel. As in other examples of the Royal arms which we 
have admired at Ronaele Manor the blue fields of the first and 
fourth quarters have been drilled to take the small pieces of 
yellow glass on which the fleurs-de-lis are painted and the 
golden lions of England are ground off or abraded from ruby 
glass. The highly ornate shape of the shield, with its scroll 
work at top, at foot and at the sides, should also be noted, and 
the delicate character of the Renaissance detail in the large 
clasps through which the encircling chaplet runs merits atten- 
tion. The fine crown which surmounts the shield is of the 
same pattern as those above the Royal arms in the Morning 
Room, sharing with them the unusual feature of ' crosses 
fleuree ' instead of ' crosses patee ' on the circlet. 

The next light contains the arms of the family of Erlye, 
variously spelt, like many names in ancient times, Erly, Erley, g 

Erlegh or Erie — a fret and a canton, both sable, on a silver field 
— impaling the arms of Clederowe — sable, a chevron embattled FL A 7i£~ gjg> 
between three eagles displayed silver. Here again the delicacy 
of the setting is a marked feature, in particular the rich colour- 

E 33 

Heraldic Stained Glass 

ing of the clasps, and a point to be noted is the pretty fashion 
in which the twisted ribbons which form the four narrow bands 
round the chaplet are finished off. 

The glass painter had a comparatively simple task in paint- 
ing this shield, for, as both coats were in black and white, each 
could be painted on a single piece of white glass : as a contrast 
to the simplicity of the shield he threw all the colour and refine- 
ment of design possible into its admirable setting. Both these 
coats of arms were quartered by the Paulet family, and we 
shall meet with them in that connection in the next window. 
- </6 In the third light we come again to Royal heraldry — the 
41% £ ? arms °f Henry VIII crowned within the Garter. Once more 
we must commend the craftsmanship in the lead work of the 
first and fourth quarters of the shield and the excellent finish 
of the abraded coloured glass. Special attention may be called 
to the boldness shown in designing the buckle of the Garter 
and the charming work in the pendant. 

The fourth light shows a panel — a replica, except for the 
3 8 heraldry, of the Erlye panel — which contains the arms of an- 
other famous man of the Tudor period, Thomas Audley, Lord 
Chancellor of England, who died in 1543. This fine shield 
with its striking colouring and golden * eagles displayed ' and 
its bend charged with a fret between two martlets, is all rendered 
in pot-metal glass, the painting throughout being of the very 
highest quality. 

Thomas Audley, born at Earls Colne in Essex in 1488, after 
a successful career as a lawyer, became Lord Chancellor, and 
succeeded in obtaining large grants from the forfeited estates 
of the religious houses . Among these was the mitred Benedic- 
tine Abbey of Walden, in Essex, one of the richest of the English 
monasteries. About the same time he was created Baron 



PLATE 1 8 

George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland 
XVI century 

' 1? 

The Living Room 

Audley of Walden, taking up his abode in the Abbot's house 
at the Abbey. He died in 1543 and lies buried in the Audley 
Chapel, which he had built in his lifetime at Saffron Walden 
Church, under a splendid monument adorned with his her- 
aldry. Lord Audley was one of the few leading men of Tudor 
days who held office continuously through the troublous times 
which followed the fall of Cardinal Wolsey. He retained the 
confidence of Henry VIII to the end, avoiding the danger of 
partisanship in Henry's matrimonial tangles and adapting him- 
self to the King's doings in religious affairs. 

As a contrast to the many stories which are told of Lord 
Chancellor Audley 's avarice and of the legal chicanery to 
which he resorted in the piling up of his great fortune, it is 
pleasant to remember that he was the founder of Magdalene 
College, Cambridge, which still bears his arms, devoting to 
that purpose the site of a hostel for Benedictine students on the 
north bank of the Cam, which had been founded by Edward 
Stafford, Duke of Buckingham, and, on his attainder and exe- 
cution in 1 52 1, had passed to the Chancellor. An interesting 
point to note is that the appointment of the Master of Magda- 
lene College is still vested in the owner for the time being of 
Audley End. 

Lord Audley 's immense wealth passed to his only child 
Margaret, Duchess of Norfolk, whose son Thomas Howard 
was successively created Lord Howard of Walden and Earl of 
Suffolk. He it was who demolished the Abbey buildings and 
set up on their site the magnificent palace which he named 
Audley End, a part only of which exists to-day, but that part 
in itself one of the finest examples of early seventeenth-century 
domestic architecture left in England. 

In the last light of this window we see the arms of Queen 


Heraldic Stained Glass 

Katherine Parr, royally crowned and set in a blue chaplet with 
* 31 wine-coloured clasps and green bands of the same character as 
its companion panels. The Tudor Royal arms, for Henry VIII, 
impale those of his Queen, and in the first quarter of her coat is 
shown the augmentation of honour granted to her on her mar- 
riage to the King — a red pile charged with three white roses be- 
tween six red roses, followed by her paternal arms, two blue bars 
on a silver field with a black engrailed border and the coats of 
Ros, Marmion, Fitzhugh and Green. 

The Second Bay Window 

The first light on the left contains the arms of Paulet quarter- 
ing those of Ros, in this case with a red field, Poynings, St. 
John, Strange, Hussey, Leicester, Erlye and Delamere, set in a 
coloured chaplet of the same design as that in the shield of 
Henry VIII and Katherine Parr. It will be noticed that the 
arms of Paulet in this shield bear a slight addition to the Paulet 
arms as shown in the window of the Library — a little crescent 
— a mark of cadency to indicate descent from a younger son. 
It is probable that the Paulet to whom this shield refers was a 
member of that branch of the family which became owners of 
Edington in Wiltshire, after the attainder and execution of Sir 
Thomas Seymour, Baron Seymour of Sudeley, Lord High Ad- 
miral of England and fourth husband of Queen Katherine 

The Church at Edington had originally belonged to a col- 
lege or monastery of the Bonhommes, of which religious order 
we heard in connection with Ashridge. Upon the dissolution of 
their house at Edington it was granted to Lord Seymour of 
Sudeley. The Paulets built a splendid house on the site of 
the demolished monastery which, in the course of time, was 




William Paulet, Marquess of Winchester 
XVI century 

The Living Room 

allowed to fall into a ruinous condition. Ultimately what 
remained habitable of it was incorporated with a farmhouse 
which still retains ancient panelling and other features from 
the old mansion. 

We shall not be far wrong if we assume that this panel with 
the arms of Paulet was originally set up, with others, in the 
Paulets' great house at Edington, and that with many of its ^ 
companion panels it ultimately found its way to Wroxton after ' L 
Edington had fallen into decay. When this removal took place 
must remain uncertain, but it is likely that it was during the 
seventeenth century, after Wroxton had passed to the Norths 
by the marriage of Lord Keeper North to the heiress of the last 
Earl of Downe. The colour work in this shield is in pot-metal 
glass finished by the process of abrasion, and the spacing of 
the charges is extremely well arranged. 

In the second light is a shield bearing the arms of Paulet, 
with the crescent, impaling those of Clederowe. There is no 
positive colour in these arms, so the painter was able to dis- 
pense with lead work, except for the dividing line down the 
centre of the shield. As in other similar cases, the fine colours 
in the setting afford a happy contrast to the black and white 
of the arms. The design of the Renaissance work of the clasps 
is well defined and has a pretty and quaint feature in the amo- 
rini sitting astride on wine casks. It is of the same pattern as 
we see in the fourth light of this window, with a slight addi- 
tion, the motto SERVA EADEM on the cartouche below the 

The panel with the arms of Edward, Prince of Wales, in the 
third light is identical in the design of the chaplet with those in 
the last light in the first window, and the first and fifth in this 
window, a noticeable feature being the purple clasps enriched 


Heraldic Stained Glass 

with yellow stain. The Prince's coronet with which the arms 
are ensigned is well drawn and exhibits the peculiarity to which 
reference has already been made, the shape of the crosses on 
the circlet suggesting a Flemish training of the designer. Here, 
too, the construction of the shield shows that clever and con- 
scientious work, the insertion of the fleurs-de-lis in holes 
drilled in the glass, and the high character of the abraded work 
resembles that which we have noticed in other examples of the 
Tudor Royal arms at Ronaele Manor. 

In the fourth light is another shield of the same young Prince — 
afterwards King Edward VI — but without his coronet, which is 
— in its Renaissance ornament — similar to the medallions with 
the arms of Paulet and Clederowe in the same window, and, like 
it, exhibiting the highest possible degree of skill in the glass 
painter . The panel in the fifth light contains the arms of the family 
of Seymour and might apply to any member of that family not 
descended from Sir John Seymour, the father of the Queen, 
for all his descendants are entitled to quarter the augmentation 
of honour granted to Jane Seymour on the occasion of her 
marriage to Henry VIII. This augmentation, which is absent 
from the shield before us, was granted to the Queen in the year 
1536, so that the shield probably refers to one of her brothers 
alive before that date. She had three brothers only who lived 
to maturity — Edward, afterwards the famous Lord Protector, 
Henry, and Thomas, afterwards created Lord Seymour of 
Sudeley. The latter came into possession of Edington early in 
the second quarter of the sixteenth century, and it is to this 
brother of the Queen to whom we can with any degree of prob- 
ability ascribe these arms. The fact that he was the fourth hus- 
band of Queen Katherine Parr, the setting of whose arms in 
the adjoining bay window is identical with the setting of this 




Sir Francis Knolles 
XVI century 

4 -? 

The Living Room 

panel, carries this ascription almost to certainty, so we may 
regard some of the panels in this room as having been origin- 
ally painted for Lord Seymour of Sudeley and for members of 
the Paulet family during the lifetime of Henry VIII. 

After the arms of Seymour — a pair of golden wings conjoined Jfe? 
on a red field — in this shield follow four quarterings : Beau- 
champ of Hache, Esturmy, Macwilliam and Coker. The wings 
in the Seymour coat are abraded from the ruby glass, as are 
also the lions of Esturmy and the roses of Macwilliam in the 
third and fourth quarters, and the leopards' faces in the coat 
of Coker in the last quarter of the shield. The counter-chang- 
ing in the colour of the roses in the arms of Macwilliam may be 
noted as an example of clever craftsmanship. 



Bay Window 

HE seven lights in the upper tier of this win- 
dow are, with the exception of that in the cen- 
tre, filled with heraldry from the windows of 
the Gallery at Wroxton Abbey. 

The first three, the fifth and the sixth medal- 
lions refer to the ancient family of Hungerford ; 
in the central light is a shield of the arms of Edward, Prince of 
Wales, afterwards King Edward VI, and the last light is occu- 
pied by the arms of Henry Courtenay, Marquess of Exeter. 

The Hungerford panels are of the same design, and it is cer- 
tain that they were all painted by the same hand and at the 
same time. While their style proclaims them to belong to the 
sixteenth century, some of the persons commemorated by them 
died before that time. It is highly probable, therefore, that 
they belonged originally to a series of panels setting forth, in 
heraldic language, the alliances of the Hungerford family over 
a long period. 

These medallions are, undoubtedly, the work of an English 
glass painter ; the clasps through which the oak-leaf chaplets 
run are simple in design, lacking the intricacy which charac- 
terizes the work of Galyon Hone and his fellow painters of 
Flemish extraction, and the ornamental settings are kept strict- 
ly subservient to the heraldry. Again the ancient pot-metal pro- 
cess is used as far as possible in the construction of the shields : 
there is no enamel work in them. Altogether these heraldic 
medallions admirably exemplify the character and methods 
of the best English school of glass painting in Tudor times. 

In the first light is a shield with the arms of Sir John Hun- 
gerford and those of his first wife, Bridget Fettiplace. 



Sir Edward Coke 
XVI century 

The Dining Room 

The Hungerford family looms large in the history of Wilt- 
shire from the thirteenth century to Stuart times, and is still 
represented in the squirearchy of that county . The first member 
to make a name in Wiltshire was Walter of Hungerford in 
Berkshire, who married Maud, the daughter and heiress of 
John, Lord of Heytesbury, now a small market town between 
Salisbury and Warminster, but once of more importance, for 
it returned a member to Parliament. With his wife, Maud, 
Walter acquired the Manor of Heytesbury, and his grandson, 
Walter, added to the family possessions by marrying Eliza- 
beth, the heiress of Sir Adam Fitzjohn, who brought to him 
the Manor of Cherhill in Wilts. His son, Sir Thomas Hunger- 
ford, has the distinction of having been the first Speaker of the 
House of Commons mentioned in the Rolls of Parliament : he was 
Speaker in 1376 and represented his native county in Parliament 
for over thirty years . Sir Thomas , having bought the Manor and 
Castle of Farley in Somersetshire, it came to be called, as it is 
to this day, Farley Hungerford, and his descendants in the 
elder line made it their chief place of residence. Sir Thomas 
died in 1398 and was buried in the chapel at Farley Castle ; 
by his second wife, Joan, one of the co-heiresses of Sir Edmund 
Hussey of Holbrook,he had four sons, of whom the three eldest 
died without issue in his lifetime, leaving the fourth son, Wal- 
ter, as his successor and heir to all his many lands and manors. 
Of this Walter, who grew to be the most distinguished of all 
the Hungerfords, we shall hear presently. Here we will only 
note that he bought the Manor of Downe Ampney in Wilts, 
and settled it on his third son, Sir Edmund Hungerford, whose 
descendants lived there for many generations. One of them 
was the Sir John Hungerford whose arms, with those of his 
wife Bridget Fettiplace, are on the shield before us. 

f 41 

Heraldic Stained Glass 

A peculiarity of the Hungerford family is the fact that, after 
the marriage of their ancestor Walter of Hungerford to the 
heiress of Heytesbury, they adopted the arms of Heytesbury — 
per pale indented gales and vert a chevron or — and after the mar- 
riage of Walter of Heytesbury with Elizabeth Fitzjohn, the 
Hungerford arms usually consist of the coat of Heytesbury 
quartered with that of Fitzjohn. Thus we find Heytesbury quar- 
tering Fitzjohn as the paternal arms of this Sir John Hunger- 
ford, the coats of Burnell in the second quarter and Bottetort 
in the third quarter being the arms of heiresses married by two 
of his ancestors. 

In the second light are the arms of Thomas, the eldest son 
of Sir Edmund Hungerford of Downe Ampney, who died in 
. Oq 1484, by his wife Margaret, heiress of Sir Edward Burnell. 

This Thomas Hungerford, who succeeded his father at Downe 
Ampney, married Christian, daughter of John Halle of Salis- 
bury, that famous merchant of the Staple, who built the Hall 
of John Halle in the street now called New Canal in that city, 
he of whom old Aubrey writes, ' as Greville and Wenman 
bought all Coteswolde, soe did Halle and Webb all wooll of 
Salisbury plaines.' By his speculation in wool John Halle 
made a great fortune, was Mayor of Salisbury several times, 
and married his daughters well — one of them to Sir Thomas 
Wriothesley, Garter King of Arms, and the other, Christian, 
to the Sir Thomas Hungerford whose arms, impaling those of 
Halle — a chevron charged with a six pointed star between three 
columbines — are on the shield in this charming medallion. 

We come now, in the third light, to the arms of Sir Walter 

Hungerford of whom mention has already been made, the 

9d-*J^ fourth son of Sir Thomas Hungerford of Farley Castle. He 

had a varied career : as a soldier he was distinguished in 




Thomas Cecil, Earl of Exeter 
XVI century 


The Dining Room 

Henry V's wars in France, and was present at the battle of 
Agincourt. He was prominent, too, like his father, in the parlia- 
mentary world and was Speaker of the House of Commons in 
1413. As a diplomat he made his mark, going on embassies to 
the Emperor and other Princes of Europe on several occasions. 
In 1421 he was made a Knight of the Garter, and in 1424 he 
became Steward of the Household to the infant Henry VI. In 
the Parliament of 1425 he received a summons to the House of 
Lords as Baron Hungerford, and ultimately, in 143 1, he was 
appointed Lord High Treasurer of England, an office not only 
of great dignity, but of an extremely lucrative nature. 

In his county he was known for his generosity, founding 
hospitals and houses of alms for poor folk, one of which is 
still flourishing at Heytesbury. In Salisbury Cathedral he 
built the famous Hungerford Chapel — destroyed by the archi- 
tect Wyatt in the eighteenth century — and he also provided 
endowments for chantry priests to sing masses there — for ever, 
as he thought — for himself, his descendants, and all other 
Christian souls. 

He died in 1449 and was buried in Salisbury Cathedral, 
leaving issue by his first wife Katherine Peverell. His second 
son Robert inherited the Barony of Hungerford and the estate 
at Heytesbury, the eldest son Walter having died in his father's 
lifetime. He also left two daughters, one of whom, Elizabeth, 
married Sir Philip Courtenay of Powderham Castle, Devon, 
thus establishing relationship with the Courtenay family, a 
marriage which doubtless had some connection with the in- 
clusion in this series of the arms of Henry Courtenay, Mar- 
quess of Exeter, which we see in the right-hand light of this 

The arms of Hungerford on this shield show the quartered 


Heraldic Stained Glass 
coats of Heytesbury and Fitzjohn only : on the wife's side of 
the shield there are the arms of Katherine Peverell — three gold 
wheat sheaves in a blue field with a silver chief — a coat which, 
perhaps, originated the Hungerford crest — a wheatsheaf be- 
tween two sickles — a sickle being also the Hungerford 

A fine Renaissance panel from Dagnam Park, Essex, bearing 
the arms of Edward VI as Prince of Wales, is in the central 
light : this panel displays the same beautiful workmanship 
shown in the construction of the arms of France and England 
which we have noticed in other examples of the Tudor Royal 
arms. In this instance, the shield is set in a chaplet of purple- 
pink foliage bound with white roses, and surmounted by a 
Royal crown. An interesting and uncommon feature in the 
latter is the intertwining within the crown of two Royal 
badges — the Tudor rose and the pomegranate, the last re- 
miniscent of the marriage of Henry VIII with Katherine of 
Aragon, and the profiles of a bearded King and a Queen in the 
side clasps are noticeably quaint. 

In the fifth light is another Hungerford medallion, a shield 
with the arms of Thomas Hugford, Huggeford or Higford, for 
the name is variously spelt, of Dickies tone or Dixton in Glou- 
cestershire — on a chevron between three bucks' heads caboshed or 
three mullets gules quartering sable apile argent — and impaling the 
arms of Hungerford, quartering Burnell and Bottetort. This 
shield commemorates Thomas Hugford 's marriage to Isabel, 
one of the daughters of Thomas Hungerford of Downe Amp- 
ney and Christian Halle of Salisbury, whose arms we have 
already seen. We may notice as an interesting piece of crafts- 
manship that the yellow charges in the green field of the arms 
of Hugford have been produced by abrading the surface from 




Thomas Manners, Earl of Rutland 
XVI century 

The Dining Room 

a piece of blue flashed glass and staining the whole surface 
yellow, thus obtaining the necessary green and gold. 

The sixth light contains the last of the Hungerford panels, 
an intricate shield with the coat of Sir Anthony Hungerford 
impaled with those of his second wife Lucy, daughter of PL* 

Walter, the last Lord Hungerford, who was beheaded in 1541. 
The husband's coat is quartered with the arms of Hungerford, 
and those of Langley and Longley. 

Downe Ampney lies to the north-east of the road from 
Cricklade to Cirencester. The present mansion there was 
built in the reign of Henry VIII by Sir Anthony Hungerford, 
father of the Sir John who married Bridget Fettiplace. The 
old house has now been much modernised, but the original 
gateway with its crocketed gables and domed turrets remains. 
It will be observed that all the Hungerford panels in this 
window refer to members of the Downe Ampney branch of the 
family, and that the persons commemorated by them, with one 
exception, all lived during the reigns of Henry VIII and his 
children who succeeded him on the throne. 

The exception is the medallion with the arms of Sir Walter, 
the first Lord Hungerford, who died in 1449, and his wife 
Katherine Peverell. There can be no doubt but that this panel, 
painted in memory of the first Hungerford of Downe Ampney, 
was one of the series of heraldic medallions perpetuating the 
alliances of the Hungerford family, now forming such an 
interesting feature of the collection at Ronaele Manor. 

In the seventh light is a shield with the arms of Henry > - 3 < 

Courtenay, Earl of Devon. This nobleman was a son of Sir 
William Courtenay and the Princess Katherine, sister of 
Edward IV, and for a few years was in high favour with Henry 
VIII, who created him Marquess of Exeter in 1525. In com- 


Heraldic Stained Glass 
mon, however, with other descendants of the blood royal, he 
fell a victim to the jealous fears of that monarch, and, in 1539, 
he was beheaded on a flimsy charge of conspiring with Henry 
Pole, Lord Montacute, and Sir Henry Nevill to place Cardinal 
Pole on the throne. 

It will be noticed that the Royal arms, within a border of 
lions and fleurs-de-lis, are in the first quarter of this shield : 
this is to indicate the Marquess's descent from Edward IV. 
In the second and third quarters are his paternal arms — three 
torteaux in a gold field — and the arms of Red vers — a blue lion 
rampant on gold — are in the fourth quarter. This coat of 
Red vers is still quartered with Courtenay by the Earl of Devon 
of to-day as a symbol of his descent from William de Red vers, 
Earl of Devon in the thirteenth century, whose heiress 
Mary married his ancestor Robert Courtenay, Baron of 

With the exception of the Royal quartering, which is abraded, 
the heraldry in this shield is all in leaded pot-metal glass, and 
reaches the highest level of craftsmanship : it is, indeed, quite 
along the lines of the work of the glass painters of the fifteenth 
century. This fine medallion was, no doubt, painted during 
the period indicated by the Marquess's coronet with which the 
arms are ensigned, that is between 1525 and 1539, and it was 
doubtless originally in the windows of Downe Ampney in 
company with the Hungerford heraldry. 

The Window on the Left of the Fireplace 

In the first light is a circular panel from Cassiobury which 

^~2 ^jfQ . / a contains an earlier example of the Tudor Royal arms than we 

have yet met with at Ronaele Manor. The design of the crown 

proclaims it to be the work of the Flemish artists working 




Henry Clinton, Earl of Lincoln 
XVI century 


The Dining Room 

in England of whom we have already heard, one of those glass 
painters brought by Henry VII — to whom these arms must 
be taken to refer — from the Netherlands and who did so much 
of the painted glass in the new Lady Chapel at Westminster 
Abbey built by that King. The lilies of France are 
in leaded pot-metal and the English lions are abraded 
from the ruby glass. The green chaplet which surrounds 
the shield is distinctly restrained! in design and in marked 
contrast with the more florid Renaissance work which we 
have come to associate with the Flemish school of glass 

The central panel, from Wroxton, with the Royal arms, is of 
a different type to that last described, and may perhaps refer 
to Queen Mary. It is probably the work of one of Galyon " f^ 

Hone's assistants, the design both of the crown and of the 
chaplet being very similar to those seen in the windows of the 
Living Room. 

The significance of the initials M.O.E., on the label below the 
shield, is not free from doubt, but perhaps the most likely sug- 
gestion is that they are intended for MEMORIA OB ETERNA , 
in pious remembrance of a dead sovereign by a loyal subject. 
Another shield of the Royal arms of the time of Henry VIII 
is in the third light ; it comes from Coombe Abbey, near ^fjL - fv>- >y- 
Coventry in Warwickshire, the seat of the Countess of 
Craven. The chaplet is composed of green foliage with 
roses in base and at the sides, with white and yellow bands 
between them. The medallion is circular, surmounted 
by the Royal crown, and the arms on the shield are con- 
structed in the style now familiar to us — insets of yellow 
fleurs-de-lys in the blue fields and the lions abraded from ruby 


Heraldic Stained Glass 

The Window on the Right of the Fireplace 

In the first and third lights of this window are two circular 
medallions of the early sixteenth century from the ancient 
home of the Barrett-Lennards at Belhus in Essex, companions 
to the panels from the same house which are now in the 

The left-hand light contains a shield — set in an ornamental 
chaplet of light purple with white clasps and ruby bands and 
with green floral fillings between the shield and the chaplet — 
bearing the arms of Sir William Norris and his wife Jane, 
daughter of John de Vere, Earl of Oxford. They were the 
paternal grandparents of Mary Norris, wife of John Barrett, 
builder of the mansion now standing at Belhus. 

On the left-hand side of the shield the arms of Norris — 
a chevron between three hawks' heads — are quartered with those 
of Mountford — bendy oj eight blue and gold within a red border — 
while, on the wife's side of the shield are the arms of the 
famous family of de Vere — quarterly gules and or with a mullet 
in the first quarter — quartered with the coat of Howard — a 
bend between six crosslets all silver in a red field. It will be 
noticed that the Howard augmentation, the tiny shield to 
which reference was made on a previous page, is absent from 
the Howard arms in this quartering, the reason being that 
the alliance between the houses of de Vere and Howard took 
place before the grant of the augmentation. Whenever the 
leaded pot-metal process could be used, it has been, in the 
construction of this shield ; the only instances of another 
process are the crosslets in the Howard coat and the silver 
mullet in de Vere's and they are abraded from the ruby 

The central light shows another circular panel of the six- 

4 8 



Ambrose Dudley, Earl of Warwick 
XVI century 

The Dining Room 

teenth century, somewhat similar in design to the panels from 
Belhus, but with a shield of larger and less severe outline. 

The arms are those of Moyle of Cornwall — a mule in a red 
field within a white border with a * mullet ' — actually the rowel 
of a spur — above, quartering Moyle of Chester, Luccombe of 
Cornwall, and Kayle of the same county. On the right-hand 
side of the shield are the arms of Stanley and Lathom quarter- 
ing Stafford, Arden and Cam vile. The persons commemo- 
rated by these arms are Sir Thomas Moyle and his wife. 

Sir Thomas came of a family of lawyers long settled at 
Bodmin in Cornwall. His grandfather, Sir Walter Moyle, was 
appointed a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas in 1454, and 
Thomas himself followed the law, entering as a student of Gray's 
Inn before 1522. He was Reader of his Inn in 1534 and 1539, 
having been knighted in 1537. After election as member of 
Parliament for Kent, he was elected Speaker of the House of 
Commons in 1 542 . We find him busy in the matter of the Dis- 
solution of the Monasteries ; he was one of the Commissioners 
for visiting the religious houses and collecting evidence to sup- 
port Henry VI IPs plan to dissolve them and seize their property. 
Afterwards he became Chancellor of the Court of Augmenta- 
tions, a tribunal setup to deal with the estates of the dissolved 
monasteries. In 1560 Sir Thomas died at Eastwell Court in 
Kent, an estate which he had inherited from his grandfather 
the Judge. 

Apart from the amusing example of canting heraldry in the 
first quarter of the shield, the arms of Moyle, a mule, the 
Stanley arms and quarterings on the right-hand side of the 
shield open out an interesting piece of family history. They 
refer to the family of Stanley, of the same stock as the Earls 
of Derby, which was seated at Clifton Camvile in Stafford- 

G 49 

Heraldic Stained Glass 

shire, a place famous for the beauty of its church spire. The 
Stanleys acquired the Manor there from the StarTords, a 
family which has left its mark on English history, and they in 
turn inherited it from the Camviles : the arms of these families, 
it will be noticed, appear in this shield as quarterings of Stanley. 

With regard to the construction of the shield, the abraded 
process was used for the charges in the first quarter, and the 
remainder of the shield is a mixture of pot-metal and abrasion: 
the lions in the last quarter are excellent examples of the last- 
mentioned process. 

Another shield from Belhus is in the right-hand light, the 
arms of John, Lord Lovel, and Joan Beaumont his wife, the 
- 5 3 parents of Frideswide Lovel, who was the mother of John 
I Q-7& V3 Barrett's third wife. In the first quarter on the husband's 
side of the shield is the coat of Lovel — harry nebule of seven 
or and gules — which is followed by the Lovel quarterings, 
Deincourt, Burnell, a family whose arms we have met with 
before in these windows, and Holland, the same coat as seen in 
the Morning Room and the Library. On the other side are 
the wife's arms, Beaumont — a lion rampant gold in a blue field 
powdered with fleurs-de-lis — with the quarterings of Comyn of 
Badenoch, a great North-country family, Bardolph, and the 
very beautiful coat of Philip, Lord Bardolph — quarterly gules 
and argent with a golden eagle displayed in the first quarter. All 
the arms in this medallion, except the bordure in the coat of 
Burnell, and the quarters in that of Philip, Lord Bardolph, 
which are of pot-metal glass, are executed by the process of 
abrasion, being very fine examples of that kind of work. The 
eagle in Bardolph 's coat, also, is of abraded ruby glass. The 
whole shield is of the best type of English Tudor craftsman- 




Thomas, Lord Wentworth 
XVI century 


N the three-light window in this room are cir- 
cular medallions with the Tudor Royal arms 
and a Royal badge. 

In the first light is a shield from Cassiobury 
of the Royal arms within a wreath of foliage S<2 ■ 
stained yellow : it is of the period of Queen l/l/. 

Elizabeth, and in spite of the floriated style of the crown, it is 
the work of an English glass painter. A noticeable feature in 
the arms is the spacing of the charges, the lilies and lions, in 
the field : they are boldly designed and adequately fill up the 
spaces available for them. 

The Royal arms in the middle light is a little earlier in date 
than the panel last described. It was probably painted in the 
reign of Queen Mary, about the year 1555, and comes from ' 
Dagnam Park, in Essex. The shield is made up of four pieces 
of coloured glass, two blue and two red. Of the charges the lions 
are abraded, and the lilies are stained on pale blue glass, and 
here, again, the spacing of the charges is well arranged. 

The chaplet in which the shield is set is made up of a 
running rose branch painted on green glass, with clasps and 
bands of red roses at intervals. 

A Royal badge of great historical interest from Cassiobury 
is in the third light : the Portcullis of the Castle gate, that S 
massive frame — usually of timber studded with iron, but 
sometimes an iron grating — made to slide up and down in 
grooves cut for the purpose in the door jambs. It was worked 
by chains attached to the top corners, which passed through 
holes cut in the stonework, so that it was indeed a porte- 
coulisse, a door sliding in coulisses or grooves. The idea which 
originated the portcullis seems to have been based on con- 
venience : by its use the great gates of a castle could be kept 


Heraldic Stained Glass 
open, even in perilous times, thus allowing on the one hand 
free passage of air and light through the gateway, and on the 
other hand constituting a barrier against marauders strong 
enough to hold them in check until the guards within could 
swing-to the great doors. The first English King to assume the 
portcullis as a badge was Henry VII, and he used it to indicate 
the descent of his mother, Margaret Beaufort, from John 
Beaufort, Marquess of Dorset, grandson of Edward III, thus 
setting forth in picturesque and popular fashion his claim to 
the throne of England. The Beauforts long before Henry's 
time had adopted the portcullis as their badge, using with it 
the significant motto ALTERA SECURITAS. 

Henry VII seems to have had special affection for the port- 
cullis badge, for not only is it much in evidence in the decora- 
tive work of his Chapel at Westminster Abbey, but we see it 
on his tomb there, the whole design, complete with the 
Beaufort motto. 

To further perpetuate the memory of his Royal descent 
through the Beauforts Henry created a Pursuivant of Arms 
with the title of Portcullis, just as he made another Pursuivant 
called Rouge Dragon in memory of his claim to be descended 
from Cadwallader, King of Wales. Pursuivants bearing these 
titles are still members of the College of Arms. 

A glance at this medallion shows that it accurately represents 
the portcullis with its chains and rings : the design is painted 
in black enamel, heightened with yellow stain, on a single 
piece of white glass. The chaplet is of a similar character to 
that around the shield in the first light : but the crosses on the 
crown are plain patee, not at all floriated. 




King Henry VIII 
XVI century 

?- fo-32. 


ERE there are two medallions from Ashridge 
with Royal badges. The first is a red rose with 
a white rose in pretence upon it, set within a 
bay-leaf chaplet bound at the sides with crossed 
ribbons and a white rose at foot. It will be 
noticed that the chaplet is slightly pendant, not 
circular. The crown which surmounts the rose is* a full bold 
design with true crosses patee. This arrangement of roses, red 
and white, is not always clearly understood. Henry VII, that 
astute monarch, fully appreciated the usefulness of outward 
symbols, and he constructed quite a pretty series of badges, 
setting forth, in heraldic language, his claim to the throne, and, 
in particular, demonstrating that union of the rival interests of 
York and Lancaster which his marriage with Elizabeth of York 
had effected. 

These rose-badge combinations of the red rose of Lancaster 
with the white rose of York were of three kinds : the red rose 
impaled with the white one, the red rose with a white rose in 
pretence, as in this light, and the two roses quartered. The 
first two, by analogy to the rules of heraldry applicable to the 
marshalling of the arms of husband and wife, ought strictly 
to be applied only to the case of Henry VII, for they both 
signify that the red rose, Henry, married the white rose, Eliza- 
beth. The quartered rose, on the other hand, ought not to 
have been used by Henry VII, but only by his descendants. 
In practice, however, these distinctions were not always ob- 
served, as a visit to Westminster Abbey or Hampton Court 
will demonstrate. 

The coloured glass in this panel is all pot-metal. The date 
of the panel is probably about the last year or so of Henry VIFs 


Heraldic Stained Glass 

The other light of this window shows us another rose de- 
sign, red and white roses impaled, or, more correctly, dimi- 
diated. It is of the same date as the panel in the first light, 
and exemplifies in a marked degree Henry VI Ps desire to em- 
phasize the idea of the union between York and Lancaster 
brought about by his marriage. For not only are the two 
roses impaled, like the arms of a husband and wife, but a 
further compliment to his wife's family is introduced by the 
addition to the design of the sun rays which surround the 
roses, a white rose en soleil having been one of the badges of 
her father Edward IV. 




Erlye impaling Clederowe 
XVI century 


HE magnificent bay window of twenty-four 
lights containing a series of sixteenth-century 
armorial medallions brings before us many 
princes and statesmen of the Tudor period, 
some of whose heraldic cognizances we have 
already met with at Ronaele Manor. This 
may well be called the Garter Window , for all the shields in it — 
with but two exceptions — are ensigned by that symbol of the 
ancient and illustrious Order of the Garter founded by King 
Edward III and flourishing to-day. 

The beautiful medallion with the Tudor Royal arms from 
Windsor in the second light of the top tier of the window ,5~«2 
is a fit introduction to this splendid array of heraldic glass. 
It is an exceptionally happy rendering of its subject, and 
its history adds interest to its high qualities in other 

When, in the reign of Henry VIII, the Chapel of St. George 
at Windsor, commenced by Edward IV on the site of the an- 
cient Chapel of St. Edward, was approaching completion, 
there arose, of necessity, the question as to how the windows 
could best be made beautiful with painted glass. Should the 
restrained and more severe style of the old English school be 
adopted, or should Master Galyon Hone, the ' Kynge's 
Glassyer,' be summoned from his workshop in Southwark to 
fill the windows with panels painted in the manner of Flan- 
ders ? Of Galyon Hone and his companions and of their 
style of composition we have already spoken in describing the 
ancient glass from Wroxton Abbey. We need only call to 
mind here that it was distinguished by a richness and variety 
of colouring, and complexity and boldness of design which had 
sprung up in the Low Countries as offshoots of the Renais- 


Heraldic Stained Glass 

sance and had been introduced into England by glass painters 
brought from Flanders by Henry VII. 

The Flemish style was adopted and Galyon Hone and his 
fellow artists were employed to supply painted glass for the 
windows then awaiting glazing, and to restore such of the 
older glass as needed repair. The medallion before us exhi- 
bits all the characteristics of the Anglo-Flemish school of 
Tudor days — elaboration of detail and intricacy of design 
combined with highly dexterous lead work and clever use of 
the abrading tool ; all the coloured glass in it is of pot- 

The arms on the shield are those with which our survey of 
the ancient glass at Ronaele Manor has made us familiar — 
France and England quarterly with a label of three points argent 
— the arms of the child Prince of Wales, afterwards Edward VI. 

The shield of Henry Stanley, fourth Earl of Derby, K.G., 
which is in the third light, comes from Ashridge. This Stan- 
ley shield with its eight quarterings — merely a selection from 
the many quarterings to which this family, even as far back 
as the sixteenth century, was entitled — is of special interest 
both from the historical and heraldic points of view. The 
first coat in the shield, so well known as pertaining to the 
powerful and widespread family of Stanley — or Stoneley as it 
was originally, from the Manor of that name in Staffordshire — 
illustrates early heraldic usage, under which a man was at 
liberty to adopt any design for his coat of arms that pleased 
him so long as it did not belong to another. In particular, it 
was no uncommon thing for one who married an heiress to 
adopt the arms of her family in lieu of his own, a custom of 
which there are many instances. 

A case in point is that of the Norris family of Berkshire, 




King Henry VIII 
XVI century 



The Stair Hall 

illustrated by the Norris arms in some of the ancient glass 
from Belhus which we have already seen in the windows at 
Ronaele Manor. The original arms of Norris — quarterly ar- 
gent and gules with a goldjrette in the second and third quarters 
and a fesse azure over all — were exchanged on a Norris mar- 
riage with an heiress of the family of Ravenscroft for her own 
arms — a chevron between three ravens' heads erased sable on a 
silver field — as we see them in the Dining Room. 

A similar example of change of arms on marriage is in the 
shield before us. When an early ancestor of the Earls of Der- 
by, one Sir William Stanley, married Joan, the heiress of the 
Bamvilles, he became in right of his wife Lord Warden of the 
Forest of Wirral, in Cheshire. Thereupon he ceased to use 
his paternal arms, and adopted the coat, known for centuries 
since his time as the Stanley arms — three golden stags 1 heads 
caboshed on a blue bend in a silver field — appropriate heraldry 
for a Forest Lord, keeper of the King's deer. 

With regard to the arms borne by Sir William Stanley and 
his ancestors before his marriage with Joan Bamville, we must 
go back a few generations to understand the matter. One 
of his ancestors — all of whom originally bore the surname of 
Audley — took the name of Stanley or Stoneley in lieu of Aud- 
ley when he acquired the Manor of Stoneley, by giving in 
exchange for it the Manor of Thalk in Staffordshire which he 
had become possessed of by his marriage with Joan, daughter 
and heiress of Thomas Stanley. Thus he and his descend- 
ants became Stanleys instead of Audleys, although he and they 
continued to use the arms of Audley until Sir William Stanley 
married Joan Bamville. The arms of Audley are gules a fret 
or, and they have been borne in modern times by the Lords 
Audley, quarterly with their paternal coat of Touchet, they 

H 57^ 

Heraldic Stained Glass 

being the descendants in the female line, and the representa- 
tives, of the elder branch of the old-time Barons of Audley. 

The arms of the ancient family of Lathom in Lancashire are 
in the next quarter. These arms came to the Stanleys by the 
marriage of Sir John Stanley, K.G., the great-grandson of Sir 
William Stanley, with Isabel, the heiress of Sir Thomas Lathom 
of Lathom and Knowsley, both in Lancashire. This mar- 
riage brought a great accession of wealth and territorial influ- 
ence to the Stanleys and may be said to have laid the founda- 
tion of their great estate through the centuries. Thus Sir John 
Stanley acquired both Lathom and Knowsley by his marriage ; 
Lathom passed in 1714 to the Ashburnham family, and subse- 
quently it became the property of the families of Bootle and 
Wilbraham. The old house at Lathom is memorable for its 
siege by the Parliamentary forces in 1644, when the then Coun- 
tess of Derby, Charlotte daughter of Claude de la Tremouille, 
Due de Thouars, successfully defended her husband's man- 
sion with such courage and tenacity that her heroism has be- 
come matter of history. Knowsley, the other great estate 
which Isabel Lathom brought to the Stanleys, has remained 
with them and is the principal seat of the Earl of Derby to-day. 

Sir John Stanley was eminent in his time. In 1385 he was 
Lord Deputy in Ireland, and in 1406 he obtained a grant to 
himself and his heirs of the Isle of Man and the isles adjacent, 
together with all rights of royalty over the same, to be held of 
the Crown of England by homage, and by the gift to every King 
of England on his Coronation of two falcons. By Henry V, 
on his coming to the throne, Sir John Stanley was created a 
Knight of the Garter, and was also appointed Lord Lieutenant 
of Ireland for six years : in that office he died in 1 414. 

The gift of royal rights over the Isle of Man to Sir John 




Thomas, Lord Audley 
XVI century 

The Stair Hall 

Stanley and his heirs explains the presence, in the third quar- 
ter of this shield, of the arms of the Isle of Man — three legs in 
armour, conjoined in f esse and bent at the knees, on a red field. 
Originally the Stanleys were dignified by the title of King of 
Man, and held it until early in the sixteenth century, when 
Thomas, second Earl of Derby, took for it the less ambitious 
title of Lord of Man. As time went on many difficulties arose 
consequent on this absolutely independent position of the 
Island : among others it was found to offer too great facilities 
for smuggling. In 1764, therefore, the then Lord of Man sur- 
rendered to the Crown all regal rights over the Island in con- 
sideration of a payment of seventy thousand pounds, but re- 
tained the bare title of Lord of Man and certain rights of 

In the next quarter is the coat of Warrenne — chequee or and 
azure — perhaps the best known piece of old baronial heraldry 
in England, for we see it to-day as an inn sign — the Chequers — 
in almost every town in the country. This coat came to the 
Stanleys in the usual manner — marriage with an heiress. 

The arms of Strange in the fifth quarter, and those of Wyd- 
ville, Mohun and Monhaut which follow it, were brought into 
the Stanley family by the marriage of George, eldest son of 
Thomas, second Lord Stanley, with Joan, heiress of John, 
Lord Strange of Knockyn. Joan Strange was also one of the 
coheiresses to the Baronies of Mohun and Monhaut, and 
through her mother Jacquetta Wydville, daughter of Richard 
Earl of Rivers, coheiress to that nobleman. George Stanley 
thus became Lord Strange in right of his wife, and under that 
title was summoned to Parliament in 1488. 

Henry, the fourth Earl of Derby, to whom this shield refers, 
can hardly be counted among the great Elizabethans. He 


Heraldic Stained Glass 
studied taw at Gray's Inn, where a shield of arms identical 
with that before us is still in the great bay window of the hall ; 
he was knighted and made a Gentleman of the Privy Chamber 
at the Coronation of Edward VI ; he held the same office under 
Philip and Mary, and he made a good match when he married 
Margaret daughter of George Clifford, Earl of Cumberland. 
In 1572 he succeeded to the Earldom of Derby and the Lord 
Lieutenancy of Lancashire : in 1574 he was created a Knight 
of the Garter and in the same year was sent as Ambassador 
Extraordinary to France, to invest Henri III with the Order 
of the Garter — a picturesque and interesting mission. Later 
he was made a Privy Councillor, and when Mary Queen of 
Scots was brought to trial, he was one of her judges. A point 
to note about this Earl of Derby is that he was the patron of a 
band of Players for whom he obtained the privilege of per- 
forming before Queen Elizabeth. In 1593 he died and lies 
buried at Ormskirk in Lancashire. 

The Garter around this shield is of pot-metal blue glass, 
alternating with pieces of yellow glass upon which the motto 
is outlined on a background of black enamel : the arms are of 
pot-metal, abraded glass, and enamel. 

In the fourth light we see a shield of the Tudor Royal arms 
from Ashridge which may safely be ascribed to Queen Eliza- 
beth. In this instance the fleurs-de-lys are stained yellow on 
pale blue glass, while the blue of the Garter is rendered in pot- 
metal and the crown painted in enamel. The name of Queen 
Elizabeth is closely connected with Ashridge. She lived there 
during the reign of Edward VI, and although on the accession 
to the throne of her half-sister, Mary, she returned to the 
Court for about a year, in 1554 she thought it prudent to retire 
to Ashridge. On the breaking out, however, of Sir Thomas 




Katherine Parr, wife of King Henry VIII 
XVI century 


The Stair Hall 

Wyatt's rebellion, Elizabeth was removed first to Whitehall, 
and afterwards to the Tower of London. There she remained 
for three months and, after a short stay at Woodstock, pro- 
ceeded to Hatfield, in Hertfordshire, which became her usual 
place of residence until the death of Queen Mary. This panel 
was no doubt one of the * Royal arms many times ' seen by 
the writer in The Topographer when he visited the house in 

The fifth light shows us another fine medallion of the Tudor 
Royal arms, impaled, in this instance, with the Cross of St. 
George — an example of heraldic marshalling seldom met with 
— which may well be a fellow to that in the second light. Al- 
lowing for the greater severity of design imposed upon the 
painter by the fact that the shield is ensigned by the Garter 
instead of a decorative chaplet, the treatment of this medallion 
suggests Galyon Hone or one of his fellow glass painters. It 
is wholly in pot-metal glass and the leading and abraded work 
show a master hand . It seems vastly probable that this medal- 
lion originally stood at the head of a long array of arms of 
Knights of the Garter, probably in a Royal residence or 
Chapel, and symbolized the King's jurisdiction as Sovereign 
of the Order. Early in the nineteenth century this interesting 
example of Tudor heraldry found its way into the large col- 
lection of painted glass formed by Sir Thomas Neave at Dag- 
nam, Essex. 

In the next light is another medallion from Dagnam Park, 
a shield with the arms and quarterings of RatclirT, a family 
which in its various branches achieved distinction in mediaeval 
times, and attained to great fame in the sixteenth century, and 
onwards to the days of George III, and not least in the person 
of James Ratcliff, the last Lord Derwentwater, the tale of 


Heraldic Stained Glass 

whose tragic death in the cause of the exiled Stuarts makes one 
of the tenderest and saddest passages in English history. 

To that branch of the Ratcliffs to which the Earls of Sussex 
of Tudor times belonged we referred when describing the 
arms in the Library of the fifth Earl of Sussex, and we shall say 
more on the subject when we come to the shield of the third 
Earl. The arms in the medallion of which we are now speak- 
ing are probably those of the second Earl of Sussex, Henry 
Ratcliff, K.G., whose more celebrated son is commemorated 
in the eleventh light of this window. Born in 1506, in the 
last years of the reign of Henry VI I, he lived through the reigns 
of Henry VIII, Edward VI, and Mary without attaining cele- 
brity, or taking any very active part in the events of that stir- 
ring period. The positions which he held were for the most 
part such as would naturally fall to one of his rank — Gentle- 
man-in- Waiting to Cardinal Wolsey on his embassy to France 
in 1527 and one of the Commissioners for the trial of Lady 
Jane Grey and Lord Guilford Dudley. He died at his house 
at Cannon Row, London, in 1566 and was buried in the 
Church of St. Laurence Pountney in that city. In after 
years his remains, with those of Robert, the first Earl of Sussex, 
were removed to Boreham Church in Essex and reinterred in 
the Sussex Chapel there under a sumptuous altar tomb bearing 
the effigies of the first three Earls of Sussex. 

An interesting episode in the career of this Earl, associated 
with the committal to the Tower of London of the Princess 
Elizabeth in the days of Queen Mary, may be recalled. Com- 
pelled by his allegiance to the reigning Queen to undertake 
the task, distasteful as it must have been to him to escort the 
Princess, his kinswoman, as a prisoner to the Tower, he exe- 
cuted the commission with all the courtesy possible on such 




Paulet of Edington 
XVI century 

The Stair Hall 

an occasion, doing everything in his power to mitigate the 
severity which the other nobleman associated with him was 
disposed to exhibit, and on taking leave of the Lieutenant of 
the Tower, impressing upon him and his subordinates how 
needful it was that the daughter of Henry VIII, their King for 
so many years, should be treated with such care and courtesy 
that they might be able to justify themselves thereafter, and in 
particular to act in no way not strictly within the lines of their 

The seventh light contains an example of the Tudor Royal 
arms of Henry VIII's period. This medallion is in certain f J i 4 T&" ^> 

respects a contrast to the Royal arms in the second light. In 
the first place it is the work of a native English craftsman and 
exhibits the leading characteristics of the English school of 
glass painting — simplicity of design and richness of colour . It 
will be noticed that the outlines of the chaplet and of the 
shield are restrained, lacking that flamboyancy of outline which 
one associates with the work of painters trained in Flemish 
methods. Again, the bands around the chaplet are simple in 
design without that intricacy and exuberance of ornament so 
much practised by the Flemings. At the same time there is no 
lack of depth or brilliance in the colours : the chaplet in a rich 
tone of green, the blue of the coat of France and the ruby of 
England exhibit a brilliance which will not lose by comparison 
with other examples of earlier glass : all the colours are ren- 
dered in pot-metal. This medallion comes from Ashridge, 
and is no doubt another of the * Royal arms many times ' 
seen there by the eighteenth-century antiquary when he visited 
the mansion. 

We now come to the middle tier of this Garter Window. 
The first light on the extreme left hand contains a shield, also 


Heraldic Stained Glass 

from Ashridge, of Sir William Cecil, first Lord Burghley, 
K.G., the greatest figure in the world of politics during the 
sixteenth century. 

The family of Cecil came of a race of yeomen or small gentry 
long seated in Herefordshire. The earlier pedigree of the 
Cecils is obscure, for Lord Burghley 's descent cannot be car- 
ried back with any certainty beyond his grandfather David 
Cecil, although it is extremely probable that David was a son 
of Richard Cecil who died about 1508. David Cecil settled 
at Stamford in Lincolnshire, and prospered exceedingly, be- 
coming Alderman and Mayor of the borough and its repre- 
sentative in three Parliaments. He seems to have had some 
influence at the Court of Henry VII, for his name occurs 
among the Yeomen of the King's Guard at Henry VI Fs fune- 
ral, and he evidently increased that influence in the reign of 
Henry VIII, for we find that in 1509 he was appointed Bailiff 
of several Crown Manors, and a few years after the office of 
Water-Bailiff of Whittlesea Mere, and that of Keeper of the 
Swans, which are Royal birds, throughout the fens of Hun- 
tingdon, Lincoln, Cambridge and Northampton, were con- 
ferred upon him. These were followed by other similar 
Crown appointments, and in 1532 and 1533 he was Sheriff of 
Northamptonshire. In 1542 or thereabouts David Cecil died, 
leaving his son Richard to continue his father's successful 

He began as a King's Page in 15 17, became Groom of the 
Wardrobe to Henry VIII, which office gave opportunity to 
* such a wise and discreet man,' as an old writer calls him, to 
ingratiate himself with the King. Like his father he received 
many stewardships of Crown lands, and he was appointed 
Sheriff of Rutland in 1539. To Richard Cecil, and in a less 




Paulet impaling Clederowe 
XVI century 

The Stair Hall 

degree to his father David, must be ascribed the beginnings of 
the material prosperity of the family of Cecil, for in common 
with most of the minor gentry of Tudor times from whom 
spring many of the titled nobility of to-day, he profited very 
largely by grants of lands which had belonged to the dissolved 
monasteries. Among others, he acquired by grant from the 
Crown, in and about Stamford alone, a nunnery with the Rec- 
tory of St. Martin's Church, St. Michael's Priory with its 
church and churchyard, the Manor of Wothorpe, which had 
belonged to Croyland Abbey, and the house of the White 

Richard Cecil retained the favour of Henry VIII until that 
King's death, and was continued in his various offices by 
Edward VI. In 1553 he died, and was buried in the Church 
of St. Margaret, Westminster, leaving by his wife Jane, daugh- 
ter and heiress of William Heckington, an only son William, 
who was to become the great Lord Burghley, he who is com- 
memorated in the shield of arms before us. 

The life of William Cecil, first Lord Burghley, has been so 
often written, and all details of his career are so readily avail- 
able, that we may confine our notice of him here to a very few 
words. He was born in 1520 at Bourne in Lincolnshire, 
probably at the house of his mother's parents, the Hecking- 
tons. The Grammar School at Stamford gave him the rudi- 
ments of learning ; in 1535 he became a student at St. John's 
College, Cambridge, and leaving the University without taking 
a degree he entered Gray's Inn in 1540, was called to the Bar 
in the following year, and became an Ancient of the Society in 
1554. Attracting the notice of Henry VIII by his skill in 
disputation, he ultimately rose to be Secretary of State at the 
early age of thirty, in the third year of Edward VI. 

* 65 

Heraldic Stained Glass 

Throughout the reign of Edward VI William Cecil's was the 
guiding hand in all matters of State. While ambitious nobles 
were plotting against each other he remained indefatigable in 
business, earning that description of him by an historical 
writer which runs : * Of all men of business he was the most 
of a drudge ; of all men of business the most of a genius.' In 
the events which immediately preceded and followed the death 
of Edward VI Cecil kept aloof as much as possible from the 
wild doings of the Duke of Northumberland, and, foreseeing 
the failure of them, took the earliest opportunity of making his 
court to Queen Mary, who, knowing his value, received him 
graciously and gave him a general pardon for his forced and 
unwilling acquiescence in Northumberland's attempt to place 
Lady Jane Grey on the throne. Although Cecil held no office 
during the reign of Mary, it is probable that he was often con- 
sulted by her and her Council ; in any event he stood loyally 
by Mary while she lived. 

At the same time he contrived to keep closely in touch with 
the Princess Elizabeth, so much so that we find her seeking his 
advice on all sorts of private business from an early period. 
Thus, in the year following the death of King Henry VIII, her 
Cofferer, Thomas Parry, writes to Cecil for advice as to how to 
deal with complaints which the Princess had received of the 
conduct of the paymaster of a hospital for poor folk which she 
had refounded at Ewelme in Oxfordshire. 

All through his life Cecil was busy accumulating — some- 
times by purchase, and at other times by grants from the 
Crown, of monastic lands and Crown manors and various 
lucrative offices — the large fortune of which he died possessed. 
From his father, too, he had received several manors and other 
properties beside the estate of Burghley. 




Edward, Prince of Wales 
XVI century 

The Stair Hall 

The death of Mary, and the consequent accession of Eliza- 
beth to the throne, began that period of forty years' continuous 
service to the State which has made the name of William Cecil, 
Lord Burghley, so well known. In every book of English 
history we can read the story. Perhaps the key to his career 
may be found in the last letter which he wrote with his own 
hand, a letter to his son, Sir Robert Cecil. * Serve God,' he 
writes, ' by serving of the Queen ; for all other service is in- 
deed bondage to the devil.' 

Lord Burghley died in 1598 and was buried in St. Martin's 
Church, Stamford, under a monument of many kinds of 
marble richly painted and gilt. 

The arms painted in enamel on the shield before us are those 
of Cecil quartering Winston and Carlyon, both of which are 
believed to have come to the Cecils by the marriage of David 
Cecil's great-grandfather with the heiress of the Winstons ; 
and Heckington and Walcot, the arms and quartering of Lord 
Burghley 's mother Joan or Jane Heckington. It will be 
noticed that the shield is surmounted by an Earl's coronet 
although William Cecil, Lord Burghley, was never created an 
Earl ; he died a Baron only. It was not until many years 
after Lord Burghley 's death that Barons had the right to wear 
coronets ; they had crimson caps of estate only. It is clear, 
therefore, that the Earl's coronet may not have been originally 
over Lord Burghley 's arms in this panel, and the most prob- 
able explanation of its presence there to-day is that when Lord 
Ellesmere, or his successor at Ashridge, early in the seven- 
teenth century, arranged all these Gartered arms in the win- 
dows there, the coronet was added to Burghley 's arms for the 
sake of uniformity with the others, and also to make it serve 
not only for Lord Burghley himself but for his son, the then 


Heraldic Stained Glass 
Earl of Exeter, who was connected by marriage with the Elles- 
mere family, and whose arms were the same as his father's. 

In the second light of the middle tier, side by side with the 
x arms of Sussex, are those of his enemy Robert Dudley, Earl of 
Leicester. This medallion is also from Ashridge. We have 
already, in describing the ancient glass in the Morning Room, 
dealt at some length with the ancestry of the Dudley family. 
Robert Dudley was the third son of the ill-fated John, Duke of 
Northumberland, and with his brothers was for a time impri- 
soned in the Tower of London after the failure of the father's 
attempt to place Lady Jane Grey on the throne. There, in 
the Beauchamp Tower, is to be seen to-day the carved wall 
panel commemorating the imprisonment of Robert Dudley 
and his brothers, done by the eldest of them, John, to while 
away the tedious hours of his enforced stay in durance. 

Little is heard of Robert Dudley during the reign of Queen 
Mary, although he was received at Court and appointed Master 
of the Ordnance, but he rose rapidly to Court favour when 
Queen Elizabeth ascended the throne. He was at once made 
Master of the Horse, and soon established himself in the role 
of the Queen's favourite courtier. The Knighthood of the 
Garter, the Barony of Denbigh and the Earldom of Leicester 
followed. In popular estimation Leicester's character is 
blackened by suspicion of two foul deeds : complicity at least 
in the death of his wife Amy Robsart, and the poisoning of 
Lord Sheffield, whose widow he married as his second wife. 
Rumour was busy with Leicester's honour in both these 
affairs, and it is true that the cautious Burghley, in a letter to 
the Queen when the possibility of her marriage with Leicester 
was in the air, referred to him as ' infamed by the death of 
his wife.' It is certain, however, that Elizabeth was not im- 




Edward, Prince of Wales 
XVI century 

The Stair Hall 

pressed by popular rumour on the subject, nor did she alter 
her attitude towards Leicester on account of it. On the whole 
we may say that the probabilities are on the side of his inno- 
cence in these matters as well as in the case of other similar 
charges brought against him subsequently. 

In 1578 Leicester ran a near chance of losing permanently 
the Queen's favour by his marriage with the widow of Deve- 
reux, Earl of Essex. Indeed he was imprisoned at Greenwich 
and would have gone to the Tower, so great was Elizabeth's 
resentment. At this juncture he was saved by his enemy, the 
Earl of Sussex, whose honest mind revolted at the idea of 
Leicester's ruin for such a cause. Sussex represented to the 
Queen that punishment of Leicester for contracting a lawful 
marriage would be unjust and unconstitutional, and would be 
a blot on her good name. In the result Leicester was released 
after a short imprisonment and managed to hold his position 
at Court and in the Queen's favour until his death in 1588. 
He died without children by either of his three wives, but he 
left an illegitimate son Robert, who was born in 1573 and died 
in 1649 a ^ ter a somewhat remarkable career. He was knighted 
for his valour at Cadiz in 1596 by the Earl of Essex, and he 
assumed his father's title, refusing to return home to answer a 
charge of having done this without right. He seems then to 
have taken service with the Emperor, and he so distinguished 
himself that he was created in 1620 Earl of Warwick and Duke 
of Northumberland in the Holy Roman Empire. He was 
given to the study of mathematics and engineering, and earned 
much praise from the Pisans by carrying through a great 
scheme for draining the marshes between Pisa and the sea : 
altogether a notable character. 

The arms of the Earl of Leicester in this shield do not 


Heraldic Stained Glass 

materially differ from those of his brother Ambrose Dudley, 
which we saw in the Library. The quarterings are not uni- 
formly the same as those in Ambrose's shield, but all of them 
are coats claimed by the Dudleys. It will be noticed that each 
compartment of the shield is on a single piece of glass, and 
that the painter has employed the processes of enamel and 
abrasion as being best suited for heraldic painting on a small 
scale. The Garter is in pot-metal and the medallion forms 
an excellent example of Elizabethan glass painting. 

Another coat of Ratcliff painted entirely in enamel, that of 
Thomas, third Earl of Sussex, K.G., occupies the next light ; 
it comes from Ashridge. In speaking of the arms in the Lib- 
rary of Robert, fifth Earl of Sussex, we have barely men- 
tioned the family of Ratcliff to which the Earls of Sussex of 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries belonged. The Rat- 
cliffs or Radcliffes took their name from the Manor of that 
name in Lancashire. In the twelfth century we find a William 
of Ratcliff seated at Ratcliff Tower, who was Sheriff of Lan- 
cashire in 1 194. A descendant of his, Richard of Ratcliff 
Tower, did brave deeds in the Scottish wars of Edward I, and 
increased his patrimony by marrying a daughter of Boteler, 
Baron of Warrington. In this connection we may notice the 
arms of Boteler in the last quarter of this shield. It was from 
this Richard of Ratcliff that the Earls of Sussex were de- 
scended, through his second son William, who married the 
heiress of the Culceth family and settled at Culceth. By the 
usual custom of marrying heiresses the Ratcliffs added 
manor to manor through the centuries : the shield with its 
quarterings, Fitzwalter, Bottetort, Lucy, Mortimer and others, 
exemplifies this. 

It was not, however, until the sixteenth century that the 




Seymour of Sudeley 
XVI century 

The Stair Hall 

Ratcliffs became in a marked degree prominent in English his- 
tory, unless we except Sir Richard Ratcliff, Minister to 
Richard III, who is perhaps best known by the mention of him 
in the doggerel verse : — 

' The cat, the rat, and Lovel our dog 
Ruleth all England under a Hog,' 
a poetical effort which brought its author, William Colling- 
bourne, to the gallows on Tower Hill. The hog is a reference 
to Richard Ill's badge, a white boar, and the cat and Lovel our 
dog were meant for Sir William Catesby, beheaded after Bos- 
worth Field, and Francis, Viscount Lovel, both, with Sir 
Richard Ratcliff, strong supporters of King Richard's rule. 

The first Earl of Sussex rose to a considerable degree of in- 
fluence in political affairs in Henry VI Fs reign, and his suc- 
cessive marriages to daughters of the Duke of Buckingham 
and the Earl of Derby increased his already ample fortune. It 
is, however, the Ratcliff whose shield of arms is before us — 
Thomas the third Earl — who is best known to fame. He was 
born in 1526, the son of Henry the second Earl by Elizabeth 
Howard, a daughter of the second Duke of Norfolk, a mar- 
riage which made Thomas Ratcliff cousin to Queen Elizabeth. 
Under Queen Mary he became Lord Deputy of Ireland, an 
office which he retained for some time under Elizabeth. In 
1565 he resigned the Lord Deputyship and was made Lord 

Subsequently Sussex was appointed Lord President of the 
North, an office of extreme difficulty, but one for which he was 
especially fitted. The Catholic Rising of 1565 had left the 
North seething with the effects of its sanguinary suppression ; 
a state of things with which the straightforward, soldierly 
character of Sussex was well able to deal. The lifelong 


Heraldic Stained Glass 

enmity of this Earl with Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, is 
matter of history — the soldierly frankness of Sussex against 
the intriguing courtliness of Leicester. Sir Walter Scott's 
picture of the two men in Kenilworth is perhaps the most 
convincing account — coloured no doubt for the novelist's 
purpose — of the relationship between these favourites of 

The presence of his shield at Ashridge is probably to be 
accounted for by the fact of the high position held by Sussex 
as one of Queen Elizabeth's most trusted Ministers, and per- 
haps it may also be commemorative of a visit by him to that 
house in the Queen's company. He died in 1583. 

The fourth light of the middle tier shows us another coat of 
Dudley with the sixteen usual quarterings of that family : this 
medallion may best be assigned to Robert, Earl of Leicester, 
of whose career we have previously spoken. 

The arms on this fine shield are identical with those of his 
brother Ambrose in the adjoining Dudley medallion and are 
executed in enamel colours and by the process of abrasion. 
As both these panels are originally from Ashridge we may 
assume that the reason for their presence there is the same in 
the one case as in the other — that they commemorate visits 
by the Earls of Warwick and Leicester to Ashridge while in 
attendance on Queen Elizabeth on the occasion of one of her 
progresses through the kingdom. 

The arms of Arthur, Lord Grey of Wilton, K.G., who died 
in 1593, are in the sixth light of the middle tier. It will be 
remembered that we saw a shield of his arms in the Library, 
ensigned, like that before us, with the Garter and an Earl's 
coronet. This family of Grey has played a part in every 
period of English history. Leaving out of account their claim 




Sir John Hungerford 
XVI century 

Sir Walter Hungerford 
XVI century 

S ' 

Thomas Hungerford 
XVI century 

The Stair Hall 

to descend from Rollo, Chamberlain to Robert Duke of Nor- 
mandy, who received a grant of the Castle of Croy, in Pi- 
cardy — from which place the surname of Grey or Gray is said 
to be derived — we find two brothers, both named John, 
famous in the reign of King John. The younger was a not- 
able Churchman of his day and, like his collateral descendant, 
Arthur, whose shield of arms is before us, was sent to Ireland as 
Lord Deputy, reaping thereby much tribulation. The other 
John may be called the founder of the best known branches of 
this famous house ; one of his sons, Walter, became Lord 
High Chancellor of England and Archbishop of York ; from 
the other descended the Greys of Rotherfield in Oxford- 
shire, the Lords Grey of Codnor in Derbyshire, the Lords Grey 
of Wilton in Wiltshire, and those of Ruthyn in Wales. The 
Ruthyn branch has been fertile in celebrities — Earls and 
Dukes of Kent, and the Greys, Lords Ferrers of Groby. 
John, the eldest son of the first Lord Grey of Groby, was the 
first husband of Elizabeth Wydville — afterwards Queen of 
Edward IV — and his son Thomas, created Marquess of Dor- 
set by his stepfather, King Edward, was the great-grand- 
father of Lady Jane Grey. 

To the Wilton branch of the Greys the legal profession has 
cause to be grateful, for it is to Henry Grey of Wilton, who 
died in 1396, that the celebrated Inn of Court, Gray's Inn, 
owes its origin. The Manor of Portpole, on the north side of 
Holborn in Middlesex, had been the London house or Inn of 
the Greys of Wilton for some generations before this Henry 
Grey conveyed it by the description of * his manor of Portpole 
in Holburne called Greysyn,' to certain persons, probably 
trustees for a body of lawyers. This conveyance was con- 
firmed by Henry's son Richard, Lord Grey of Wilton, in 141 5, 

K 73 

Heraldic Stained Glass 

and finally, in 1505, Edmund the then Lord Grey of Wilton 
granted, probably by way of confirmation of the previous con- 
veyance, the Manor of Portpole and all his possessions in the 
Parish of St. Andrew, Holborn, to several grantees, members 
of Gray's Inn, some of whom were eminent lawyers, among 
them Edmund Dudley, the arms of whose descendants are so 
much in evidence in the windows at Ronaele Manor. 

It may be of interest to mention that there is another family 
of Grey, descended from Sir Thomas Grey of Berwick, who 
died in 1402. Several members of it have been eminent in 
various ways, particularly in politics. The two principal 
branches of this family are Grey of Powis in Wales and Grey of 
Wark in Northumberland. To the Wark branch belonged the 
nineteenth-century statesman Charles second Earl Grey, 
K.G., Prime Minister of England from 1830 to 1834; his son 
Henry George, third Earl Grey, K.G., also prominent as a 
politician ; Sir George Grey, who held high Ministerial rank 
during the government of his uncle Lord Grey ; and, lastly, Sir 
George Grey's grandson, Edward, Viscount Grey of Fallodon, 
whose name is a household word to-day. 

The quarterings which follow the coat of Grey in this shield 
are fewer in number than those in the Library medallion, and 
there are some in each shield which are not in the other : we 
need not be surprised at this, for in the case of a family like 
Grey, one of the noblest in England, there must always be a 
larger number of quarterings than could be conveniently ar- 
ranged in a shield of ordinary size. It is therefore necessary to 
make a selection. The shield, like most of those which con- 
tain many quarterings, was painted in enamel colours on two 
large panes of white glass for the reason which has already been 




Edward, Prince of Wales 
XVI century 

The Stair Hall 

In addition to the short account which we gave of this Earl 
in speaking of his shield in the Library, we may note that 
among the many distinguished Englishmen who served in the 
army in Ireland during Lord Grey's tenure of the Lord Depu- 
tyship was Sir Walter Raleigh, whose services were rewarded 
by grants of Irish land and the Governorship of the City of 

This medallion is one of those noted by the writer in The 
Topographer as having been in the windows at Ashridge in 

The arms of Francis Russell, second Earl of Bedford, K.G., 
a nobleman of some eminence during the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, are in the seventh light of the middle tier. He was 
born in 1528, the only son of John Russell, originally a simple 
country gentleman living near Bridport in Dorsetshire, but 
who achieved a great position, one founded on a fortunate ac- 
cident but built up largely by his own talents and accomplish- 
ments. The accident to which we have alluded came about in 
this way. 

The Archduke Philip, only son of the Emperor Maximilian I, 
having been driven by stress of weather into Weymouth, 
was hospitably entertained by Sir Thomas Trenchard, a gen- 
tleman of the neighbourhood. Sir John Russell, who hap- 
pened to be a cousin of Sir Thomas Trenchard, was invited to 
wait upon the Archduke during his stay in Dorset and during 
his visit to the King at Windsor, and he so ingratiated himself 
with Philip that the Prince strongly recommended him to the 
King's notice. This was the beginning of John Russell's 
uniformly successful career. Honours, culminating in the 
Knighthood of the Garter and the Earldom of Bedford, were 
heaped upon him, and that worldly possessions might not be 


Heraldic Stained Glass 

lacking to support his dignity he was given much spoil from 
the dissolved monasteries, among others the estates of the 
mitred Benedictine Abbey of Tavistock in Devonshire, and 
those of the Cistercian Abbey of Woburn and the Preceptory 
of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem at Melckbourne, both 
in Bedfordshire. The Abbot of Westminster's garden in the 
Strand, London — the Convent Garden — also went to enhance 
the fortunes of the house of Russell, and when Charles II 
added the right to hold a market on the site of the garden it 
was not long before Covent Garden Market got established, 
and so prospered that to-day the greater part of the vegetables 
and fruit consumed by Londoners pays toll to the owners of 
the Market. 

Thus, Francis Russell was born to high estate and great 
wealth. Early in life he saw service with his father in the 
French wars, and on the accession of Edward VI his strong 
leanings to Protestantism brought him to the fore. From 1547 
to 1553 he was Member of Parliament for Buckinghamshire, 
being the first heir to a peerage to sit in the House of Com- 
mons. In 1547 he was Sheriff of Bedfordshire and in 1549 he 
helped his father to suppress the Catholic Rising in the West 
of England. Francis Russell, who after his father's elevation to 
the Earldom of Bedford was styled by courtesy Lord Russell, 
took a prominent part in religious affairs during the reign of 
Edward VI ; among other activities of that kind he assisted at 
the conferences held in 1551 at the houses of Lord Burghley 
and Sir Richard Morrison on the nature of the Sacrament of 
the altar, showing strong sympathy with the views of the Swiss 
Reformers on that subject and on religion in general. 

In 1553 the Lord Wardenship of the Stannaries was con- 
ferred upon him, an office of considerable importance, in- 




Thomas Hugford 

Sir Anthony Hungerford 

i9 c* 


Henry Courtenay, Earl of Devon 
XVI century 

The Stair Hall 

volving the headship of the courts which deal with the tin 
mines of Devon and Cornwall and the rights in them, as well 
of the Duchy of Cornwall as of the proprietors and miners : 
this office he held until 1580. 

The death of Edward VI and the succession of Queen Mary 
to the throne gave a temporary check to the new nobility which 
had profited by the breaking up of the old Church system, and 
among them to the Russells. 

Francis Russell, who succeeded to the Earldom of Bedford 
in 1554, was imprisoned on suspicion of complicity in Sir 
Thomas Wyatt's Rebellion, but he managed to escape and fled 
to Geneva, where he associated with the leaders of the Protest- 
ant movement in Switzerland. We hear of him at Venice in 
1557 and again as being present as a Captain in the English 
Expeditionary Force at the battle of St. Quentin in the same 
year. Mary's death brought the Earl of Bedford back to Eng- 
land to resume that successful career which lasted without a 
break to his death. He was at once created a Privy Councillor 
and took a prominent part in the new settlement of religion 
along Protestant lines ; in this connection he was appointed a 
commissioner to receive the Oath of Supremacy to the Queen 
as head of the Church of England, and to draw up the new 

High and lucrative offices were given to him in succession 
— Lord Wardenship of the East Marches of the Borders be- 
tween England and Scotland and the Governorship of Ber- 
wick, Lord Presidentship of Wales, Chief Justiceship of the 
Forests South of the River Trent and others of lesser note. 
In 1585 the Earl died at Bedford House in the Strand, a house 
built on part of the site of the Convent Garden. 

The arms on this medallion are painted in enamel, while the 


Heraldic Stained Glass 

Garter is in pale blue glass with stained ornaments. It comes 
from the collection of ancient painted glass once at Dagnam 
Park, and it is quite likely that it originally formed one of a 
large series of arms of Knights of the Garter. 

The medallion from Cassiobury in the right-hand light of 
the middle tier of this window contains a shield of the arms of 
William Paulet, first Marquess of Winchester, K.G. In the 
description of the arms of this nobleman's grandson — William 
third Marquess of Winchester — in the Library, we mentioned 
his marriage with Elizabeth Capel as constituting a good reason 
for the presence of his arms in the cloisters at Cassiobury. It 
may also explain why the arms of the first Marquess were put 
up there. 

This panel must have been painted between January 1549- 
50, when Sir William Paulet was created Earl of Wiltshire, and 
October 1551, when he was raised to the Marquessate of Win- 
chester, for the coronet above the arms is that of an Earl, not 
of a Marquess. 

With regard to the construction of this medallion, the arms 
are in pot-metal wherever that process could conveniently be 
used and the rest is abraded glass. The Garter is an interest- 
ing piece of work, being made entirely of pale blue glass upon 
which the motto and borderings are indicated by yellow stain 
outlined in black enamel, a method also used in the treatment 
of the charges in the seventh quarter. Among the many quar- 
terings which follow the arms of Paulet in this shield we may 
single out those of Poynings in the second and St. John in the 
fourth quarter as pictorial symbols of exceptional wealth and 
influence brought to the Paulets by marriage. 

When about the year 1360 Lucas Lord Poynings married 
Isabel, the heiress of Hugh Lord St. John of Basing in Hamp- 




King Henry VII 
XVI century 


1 - 

The Stair Hall 

shire, the baronies of Poynings and St. John were united. The 
baronies were held by the Poynings family until Sir Thomas 
Poynings, Lord Poynings and St. John, died without children, 
leaving his sister Constance one of the coheiresses to his hon- 
ours and estates. Constance Poynings married John Paulet, 
the great-grandfather of the Sir William Paulet whose arms 
are in this shield, thus bringing her share of the Poynings and 
St. John estates to the Paulets. Further, the abeyance into 
which the honours held by the last Lord Poynings fell on his 
death without issue was terminated in March 1538-39 by the 
elevation to the peerage of Sir William Paulet as Lord St. 
John of Basing. The estate of Basing was already his, and 
there he built a splendid mansion — incorporating in his build- 
ing parts of the ancient castle — which became famous for its 
grandeur and hospitality until the troublous times of the Civil 
War. Then, in 1645, occurred its siege by Oliver Cromwell, a 
siege which resulted in the total destruction, ultimately by 
fire, of Sir William's magnificent works. 

Many are the stories told of the profuse hospitality at Basing 
House : once at least the first Marquess of Winchester enter- 
tained Queen Elizabeth there, and so magnificently that she is 
reported to have said, playfully, on that occasion, * By my 
troth, if my Lord Treasurer were but a young man, I could 
find it in my heart to love him for a husband before any man in 
England.' At another time, in the days of the fourth Mar- 
quess, the Queen, while staying at Basing, accorded a State 
Reception to the French Ambassador, the Due de Biron, in 
whose train were twenty French noblemen and four hundred 
retainers. It is not surprising to learn that after this Royal visit 
the Marquess was crippled in his resources for many a day. 

William first Marquess of Winchester lived to the advanced 


Heraldic Stained Glass 

age of ninety-seven years. All through the days of Henry VIII, 
Edward VI, Philip and Mary, and Elizabeth he held his 
steady course, escaping the multitudinous dangers and pitfalls 
which beset him and which wrecked so many, who began as 
happily as he, and brought to ruin fortunes and reputations 
which had seemed to promise so fair. 




Queen Mary 
XVI century 


ERE are two shields of the early sixteenth cen- 
tury, both from Belhus in Essex, that ancient 
house which has already been described. 

In the first light is a shield with the arms of *f V?~ j 
husband and wife — the arms of Barrett quar- 
tering Belhus, impaled with those of Dineley 
and three other quarterings . This heraldic composition stands 
for George Barrett of Belhus and Elizabeth Dineley his wife, 
daughter and heiress of Thomas Dineley of Stanford Dineley 
in Berkshire. Stanford, nine miles from Newbury, was known 
as Stanford Dineley when, in the fifteenth century, the Dineleys 
became its lords. This George Barrett was the son of John 
Barrett, the builder of the present house at Belhus, who married 
Mary Norris : the arms of her parents and grandparents we 
have already seen, it will be remembered, at Ronaele Manor. 
The arms of Barrett and Belhus have been described before : 
with regard to the quarterings which follow the arms of Dine- 
ley on the wife's side of the shield, they are all famous in his- 
tory. The first is Fitzherbert — three gold lions rampant on a 
red field — a family which has produced several men notable in 
their day, among them Sir Anthony Fitzherbert, who became 
a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas in 1522 and was the 
author of those once famous books De Natura Brevium, and 
The Grand Abridgment, and whose coat of arms was formerly 
in the bay window of the Hall at Gray's Inn. 

The second quartering is for Comyn — three gold wheat- 
sheaves in a red field — a family prominent among the Barons 
and landholders of England all through the Middle Ages, and 
the last quarter contains the arms of Stokes — gules, a lion 
rampant with a forked tail, ermine — a family long seated in 
Berkshire and which held the Manor of Stanford Dineley 
l 81 

Heraldic Stained Glass 

before it. passed, probably by marriage with the heiress of 
Stokes, to the Dineleys. 

Both this and its companion shield in the next light were 
painted by a native English artist, and are entirely abraded, 
except the turned-over tops and bases of the shields, which are 
pot-metal, blue in the one and green in the other. All this 
abraded work is of exceptionally fine character, being boldly 
ground off and the charges well spaced in the fields. 

The fellow panel to that last described, which is in the 
second light, contains the arms of Barrett quartering Belhus. 

• 1 1 T» 11 1 • 

It was painted and set up at Belhus at the same time as its 
companion, and represents the arms of the Barrett-Belhus of 
its day — George Barrett, who married Elizabeth Dineley. 




King Henry VIII 
XVI century 



NE look at the old painted glass in this room 
turns our thoughts to the sea and to the doings 
of ' those who go down to the sea in ships and 
have their business in great waters.' They 
bring vividly before us the lives and daily 
work of those stalwart mariners of the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries, who, setting their faces to- 
wards the sunset, followed their fortune in the small ships of 
those days, doggedly steering their way across the ocean until 
the sight of land promised new and untried fields for enter- 
prise. Long before, in the middle of the fifteenth century, the 
Portuguese — the first nation to use the magnetic needle on any 
considerable scale for the purpose of navigation — had shown 
the way across the watery wastes and thereby stirred up a 
spirit of enterprise along all the coasts of Europe which was to 
lead to that wonderful extension of commerce throughout the 
world which was, perhaps, the most noteworthy feature of the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 

Among all the European nations none had so much to gain 
from overseas trade as the Dutch. Their homeland, itself re- 
claimed from the sea and dependent for its very existence on 
the maintenance of defensive works against the never-sleeping 
encroachment of the waters, is but a barren heritage ; the soil 
is poor, needing constant feeding and unremitting toil on the 
part of the husbandmen to make possible a supply of the bare 
necessaries of life. For anything beyond this, for refinements 
and luxuries, the Dutch must look abroad, and so, impelled 
by their necessities, they became a great sea-going people, 
and by the middle of the seventeenth century had almost 


Heraldic Stained Glass 

secured a monopoly of the maritime carrying trade of the 

Fish and fishing have always held a great place in the activi- 
ties of the Dutch, and when, towards the end of the sixteenth 
century, the Dutch seamen got used to long ocean voyages, it 
was not long before they found their way to the far north- 
west to hunt the whale. They were not the first Europeans to 
embark in that quest ; Englishmen had visited Greenland for 
whale fishing for some years before any Dutch skipper came 
so far a-whaling. It is indeed probable that information 
about the Greenland whale fishery first reached the Dutch by 
way of England, and, if we are to trust the author of Hakluyt's 
Voyages , it is certain that in the year 1612 a Dutch ship came 
to the Greenland whale fishery with an Englishman aboard, 
one Allen Sallowes, * employed to bring them to Greenland 
for their pilot.' As, however, the same author, after remark- 
ing that there was never heard of any Netherlander that fre- 
quented the Greenland seas before 1578, tells of the coming 
to Greenland in that year of a Netherlander with the appro- 
priate name of Jon de Whale, there can be no doubt that Dutch 
whalers had been in the habit of fishing in Greenland waters 
long before Allen Sallowes piloted the Dutch ship thither in 

It would seem that from 1612 onwards Dutch whaling in 
Greenland waters had become an established custom, for Pur- 
chas gives a list of the Dutch ships which came to ' the Island ' 
in the years 1614 to 1618. In 1614 there were eighteen great 
ships from Holland which ' stayed and fished for the whale 
perforce/ an expression which almost suggests a state of war 
between the Dutch and English. The next year brought the 
Hollanders in fourteen ships, and they killed whales in Horn 




Sir Thomas Moyle 
XVI centurv 

John, Lord Lovel 
XVI centurv 

Sir William Norris 
XVI century 

Mr. Dixon's Room 

Sound, Bel Sound and Fair Haven. In 1616 only four ships 
came from Holland, and Purchas says that they made a poor 
voyage. Ten sail of Dutch ships, one of two hundred tons, and 
two men-of-war came to Greenland during the following year, 
* to make a voyage upon the whale,' and, lastly, in 161 8, ' great 
store of ships of Zealand were on the coast.' Among them 
were the Fortune of Camphire, four hundred tons ; Saint Peter 
of Flushing, three hundred tons ; the Salamander of Flushing, 
three hundred tons ; and the Cat of Delft Haven. 

Thus it is clear that Dutch mariners and fishermen of the 
sixteenth and seventeenth centuries voyaged far in search of 
trade and that their efforts were supported by the naval force 
of their country. All this voyaging into far seas by adven- 
turers from Europe was not without its effect upon family life 
and the arts which ministered to the beauty and refinement of 
the home. When Captain Abraham Leverstijk brought the 
Cat into Delft Haven with great store of whale oil, we can well 
understand the joy of his home folk and the sort of greeting he 
would meet with. Among the gifts from his kinsfolk would 
be many things for domestic use, all, we may be sure, prettily 
designed and decorated by craftsmen, neighbourly folk well 
known to Skipper Leverstijk, and it is not to be supposed that 
a piece of painted glass commemorating his voyage would be 
forgotten. One or more of these little panes, such as we see 
at Ronaele Manor, painted in that enamel process which came 
into use towards the end of the sixteenth century, would greet 
his homecoming, neatly leaded into a window of his house. 
Perhaps his ship would be shown leaving Delft, every sail 
spread to a fair wind, or its return into harbour with torn sails 
and broken spars, evidence of the good ship's battling with 
the winds and waves. Such and such like may well be the 


Heraldic Stained Glass 

thoughts inspired by these memorials of long-dead Hollanders 
and their perilous voyaging in little known seas. 

The Two-light Window 

Here are two panels of the sixteenth century : in the left- 
hand light is a picture of a Dutch ship with full complement of 
sailing power— main mast, fore mast and mizzen — and all its 
sails set. It flies the Dutch colours, horizontal stripes of red, 
white and blue. Many of the small domestic panels of painted 
glass, intended as they were to illustrate the personalities and 
occupations of the dwellers in the houses which they adorned, 
bore inscriptions, usually below the picture. Sometimes the 
inscription is merely the name of the person commemorated, 
as in this case, * S chipper Zachala Felix Van Slauerden, 1595/ 
evidently the Ship Master, but quite long inscriptions are 
often met with, some giving minute details of personal traits 
or achievements, or particulars of family connections and 
the like, and others with biblical quotations, passages from 
chronicles or old tales, moral aphorisms, or, supposing that the 
subject of the picture has reference to shipping, as so many of 
the Dutch panels have, the inscription may give advice on the 
management of ships, and, by inference, of ourselves. Thus, 
in a window of the Museum at Canterbury is a panel of 
painted glass of the sixteenth century showing a Dutch mer- 
chantman scudding before a storm with her mainsail furled, 
and below this picture is an inscription in Dutch which reads, 
* Do not be careless when all goes well, and always carry your 
mainsail so small that if mishap befall you you may overcome it.' 

The Dutch warship, carrying eighteen guns, under full sail 
in the right-hand light is no doubt a fellow to that already 
described. The one medallion may be taken to represent the 
y 86 




' >\ 


Queen Elizabeth 
XVI century 

:^ • - •■&* 

Queen Mary 
XVI century 

Mr. Dixon's Room 

Dutch merchant fleet and the other the navy of Holland, pro- 
tector of its trade by sea. 

The East Window 

Here are two sixteenth-century panes, in one another Dutch 
warship of three masts, and in the other a whaling boat 
with the body of a whale alongside. This interesting and — in 
stained glass — unusual subject must have been painted to keep 
in remembrance the capture by a Dutch whaler of a whale of 
some dimensions, a lucky catch, perhaps, by one of the Dutch 
ships which, as Purchas tells us, * made voyages on the whale ' 
for so many years in succession. We can only regret that no 
inscription records the name of the lucky skipper who brought 
so great a prize to land. 

South Window 

There are two panels of the early seventeenth century in 
this window. They both show Dutch warships under sail ; ^? ~ J d 
the ship on the left hand is three-masted, armed with twelve ^ 
guns, and flies the pennant of an admiral, while that on the 
right is a smaller schooner carrying two masts only. The con- r 
stant occurrence, in Dutch paintings on glass of a domestic 
character, of warships, battles at sea and other incidents of 
naval warfare seems to indicate a widespread interest on the 
part of the Dutch people of the seventeenth century in their 
navy and its doings, an interest which we can well understand 
when we remember how entirely dependent were the Dutch 
upon sea power for the maintenance of their trade and the 
position of Holland among the nations of Europe. 



( tJ6 PC4T^ 


E come now to Dutch heraldry of the seven- 
teenth century in the form of two small oval 
medallions, set side by side. In the left-hand 
light the shield is within a wreath, and the 
whole is set in ornamental cartouche work. 
The inscription, with the date 1621, in the 
base of the panel, tells that the man whose arms are on the 
shield was one Matthew Van Dormael. 

The medallion in the right-hand light contains a shield bear- 
ing a sheaf of wheat and set in an ornamental cartouche. 

After the successful revolt in the sixteenth century of the 
seven Provinces of the Netherlands against the power of Spain 
and the feudal Princes by whom they had been ruled for so 
many centuries, and the establishment of the Republic known 
as the States of Holland, the use of coats of arms became 
democratised, and we find heraldic devices borne by all and 
sundry. The craftsman showed the tools of his craft on a 
knightly shield, and the husbandman the implements of hus- 
bandry. The fact that heraldry on the Continent had never 
been regulated by a College of Heralds, with compulsory 
powers to deal with offenders against the law of arms, as was 
the case in England, accounts very largely, no doubt, for this 
popular use in Holland of heraldic insignia. It is true that 
most great feudal lords had their own official heralds, but such 
officers of arms were employed more in embassies to, and 
negotiations with, other princes than as professors of the 
science of heraldry, so that even in feudal times there was no 
authority other than that of the Prince himself to regulate and 
restrain the use of coat-armour. Hence we may fairly surmise 
that this shield bearing a wheatsheaf pertains to a Dutch 
farmer of the seventeenth century, who shows, by the selec- 



Badge of King Henry VII 
XVI century 


The Boudoir 
tion of wheat as his device, his full appreciation of its office as 
the staff of bread, as it is called in Holy Scripture, because it 
upholds the very being of mankind. 


8 9 


PIECE of typical English work of the fif- 

fflPU^^SSfefi teenth century claims attention in the south- 

i rzj S^B^^^m!? east wm< ^ ow — a shield i n painted glass bearing 

the arms, azure three ducks 9 or ' shovellers* ' 
heads erased argent, of Sir John Lacy, a mem- 
ber of a family long seated in Cornwall and 
other parts of the West of England. The blue glass of the 
field is pot-metal of a fine tone, and the quaint treatment of 
the birds* heads is very charming. It will be noticed that the 
ducks' heads in this shield bear a resemblance to the swans' 
necks in the arms of Bishop Lacy which we have seen in a 
window of the Morning Room, and the colour of the field is 
the same in both shields. Each bears the coat-armour of a 
Lacy, though the charges are different, an example of varia- 
tion, common in all periods, between the arms borne by 
different branches of the same family. 
The other example of stained glass in this room is in the bay 
r o window — a very beautiful presentment, in the form of a six- 
teenth-century, circular, enamel-painted medallion within a 
border, of one of those events in the life of our Lady which have 
ever appealed to the highest and best in man — the consumma- 
tion of Mary's mission as Mother of God in her Coronation in 
Heaven by her Divine Son. The mysteries of the Assump- 
tion — the death of the Blessed Virgin Mary — and her Corona- 
tion in Heaven were usually combined in one picture by the 
art of the Middle Ages, though they were, in some examples, 
treated separately by Fra Angelico and other painters : the 
Coronation grew naturally, considering who Mary was and 
what was her relation to Divinity, out of her earthly death. 
Below we see the empty tomb, the Apostles standing around 
and gazing heavenwards ; above is the final scene, Mary 



Badge of King Henry VII 
XVI century 

Mrs. Dixon's Room 

enthroned with bowed head beside her Son, or kneeling before 
Him, receiving the crown which He extends towards her, 
while the heavenly host — Cherubim and Seraphim, Princi- 
palities and Powers and all the orders of angels — rejoice and 
sing praises to the Queen of Heaven. 

While this dual arrangement was adopted in most pictures 
of the Middle Ages in accordance with the mediaeval idea of 
multiplying legends and combining one with another, we find 
that as the fifteenth century advanced the tendency was to 
treat the two subjects, the Assumption and the Coronation, 
separately, though there are not wanting in all periods ex- 
amples of their inclusion in one picture. The cause of this 
gradual change from combined to separate treatment is to be 
sought in the critical spirit of the Renaissance — one of selec- 
tion and modification, of rejection here and separation there. 
While to the mediaeval mind the stories which make up the life 
of Mary were parts of a united whole, one growing out of the 
other — a process of legitimate development — the influence of 
the Renaissance worked in the direction of separating each 
tale from those which preceded and followed it, and treating 
it both in literature and art without obvious relation to its 
fellow legends ; it would not be difficult to apply this line of 
thought to a consideration of developments inspired by the 
Renaissance of matters outside the domain of art. 





O subject came amiss to the old glass painters : 
not only material things, such as can be seen 
and handled, but mere conceptions of the 
mind, the senses, the passions and all attributes 
of gods and men, the heavenly hierarchy and 
8lthe fallen angels, all are found personified in 
ancient window lights. Those natures called inconstant by 
the old authors, ' Bodily essences of small continuance by 
reason of their ignoble or base substance,' as old Gwyllim 
writes, the Elements — they too are seen in old paintings on 

The Elements, to which the constituents of all substances can 
in the last resort be reduced, were believed by the ancients to be 
Fire, Air, Water and Earth, and when artists of old times came 
to represent these supposed Elements in pictorial form, it was 
soon found that they were tolerant of much variety in con- 
ception and treatment. The old rhyme was often taken as a 
guide : — 

* Fire, Winter's treasure ; Water, Somer's pleasure. 
But the Earth and Air, none can ever spare.' 

Thus Water would be suggested, perhaps, by a bright land- 
scape with figures seated by a spring or fountain or, as in the 
second light of the window in this room, by an amorino pour- 
ing water from a jar into a stream, and for Fire we may see a 
group round the blazing hearth, or perhaps that element may 
be symbolized by a cherub issuing from clouds grasping darts 
of lightning, as shown in the third light. Sometimes in pic- 
tures of the Elements the idea of them is prompted in a nega- 
tive way : for example, a wintry scene with a figure closely 
wrapped up suggests a craving for warmth and may be meant 





Badge of King Henry VII 
XVI century 


Miss Dixon's Room 
for the fiery element. Obvious need of a thing prompts the 
idea of the thing needed. 

The favourite method of treating the Element Air is by a 
human face, issuing from clouds, blowing violently over a 
landscape, like the design in the fourth light. In the first light, 
however, Air is treated less simply : a winged figure descends 
towards the Earth while a cloud bursts in the air over two 
figures below. Earth is usually represented by a mountain or 
high rock, but in the fifth light the subject is highly developed; 
an amorino is seen in a cornfield holding a basket of fruit. To 
all such pictures of the Elements is often added an inscription 
at the foot — a verse from the Bible, or other old book, sugges- 
tive of the Element portrayed — or there may be merely the 
name of the Element on the picture itself, as we see on these 
enamelled panes. 

Scattered over the lower lights of this window are five seven- 
teenth-century panes painted in enamel colours with represen- 
tations of the Elements treated in the manner which we have 


52-90- */ 
r tvoptATf5) 



HE seven Dutch panes of the seventeenth cen- 
tury in the lower lights are all, with one excep- 
tion, concerned with bird life. The Dutch 
have always loved the birds, and long before 
other nations thought of legislation for their 
protection, strict regulations on the subject 
existed in Holland, making molestation of birds and their 
nests punishable by fine. We can, therefore, well understand 
that pictures of birds, some painted in grisaille heightened 
with yellow stain only, and others in bright enamel colours, 
like those before us, would be popular as window decoration 
among the Hollanders. Some would be on perches in natural 
attitudes, others, like the bird drawing water in this window, 
doing man-taught tricks. 

Two of these panes, those with the stork, are of special in- 
terest, by reason of the high estimation in which this bird is 
held by Dutch folk. All travellers in Holland have been struck 
by the sight of the huge storks' nests on the house-tops — some 
on boards elevated above chimneys and others on cartwheels 
on roofs. The stork has come to be in Holland a symbol of 
family life and the home, and no Dutchman will do the bird 
injury or allow others to molest it or its nest. The oft-repeated 
story of the Storks of Delft, made famous by Dutch poets, 
comes to mind — that which tells how, when in 1536 a great 
fire destroyed a large part of Delft, the storks were seen bear- 
ing their young to safety, and how those that were unable to 
do this chose rather to perish in the flames with the young 
birds than to desert them. 

The pane with the horseman holding a pistol belongs to a 
type very common in the windows of old Dutch houses. They 
are not always military in character but represent every sort 



Edward, Prince of Wales 
XVI century 

Mr. Dixon Junior's Room 
of wayfarer. On some of them we see itinerant merchants with 
packs of goods before and behind their saddles, and on others, 
horse soldiers in steel cap and corselet, all on the road. 



ERE are four enamel-painted panes of the 
seventeenth century from a window of an old 
Dutch house, suggesting ideas for four of the 
months — June, September, October and No- 

From the earliest times decorative art has 
taken its motif from the passing of the months, the changing 
seasons and the occupations incidental to them. In architec- 
tural carving in wood and stone, in painted glass, in illumin- 
ated manuscripts and in things for domestic use — platters, 
dishes, drinking cups, and so forth — we find evidence that the 
doings of man as the seasons passed ever attracted the mediae- 
val craftsman in choosing subjects for his work. 

Work in field and forest — those earliest activities of civilized 
man, upon which all others depend — was the main inspiration 
of the mediaeval artist when he came to set forth the occupa- 
tions of man through the year ; but in proportion as art came 
under the influence of the Renaissance the artist took his 
ideas more from classical story, astronomy, or climatic con- 
ditions as they changed with the revolving seasons than from 
the operations of agriculture. Thus from the eleventh to the 
sixteenth centuries a series of pictures, whether in painted 
glass or any other form of decoration, showing the occupations 
of the months would start in March with a picture of a man 
digging and sowing, pass on through the various doings of hus- 
bandmen as the months went by — such as sheep-tending in 
May, felling trees in June, hay harvest in July, corn harvest in 
August, and so forth — to ploughing and sowing in January 
and tree pruning in February. 

In contrast to this mainly agricultural treatment of the sub- 
ject of man's work through the year we find that in the seven- 



Henry Stanley, 
Earl of Derby 


Queen Elizabeth 
XVI century 


Henry Ratcliff, 
Earl of Sussex 

The West Room 

teenth century, and onwards for fifty years or thereabouts, the 
decorative treatment of the subject showed a tendency to ig- 
nore the manual labours of men in favour of the doings of 
heathen gods and heroes, stories popularised by the revival of 
Classicism. A further development of idea came about the 
middle of the sixteenth century with increased interest in 
astronomy, and the heavenly bodies and zodiacal signs were 
pressed into the service of picturing the passage of time as 
measured by the months and seasons. 





N this room are four Dutch panes of the seven- 
teenth century similar in type to those in the 
West Room, and, like them, charmingly painted 
in enamel colours. They suggest to us ideas, 
along the lines which we have indicated in 
speaking of their fellow panels in the West 

Room, applicable to the months of January , February, March 

and April. 

9 8 



King Henry VIII 

as Sovereign of the Order of the Garter 

XVI century 


HE three Dutch panes of seventeenth-century 
enamel-painted glass in this room transport us 
to Arcady, the land of pastoral delights, verdant 
lawns and rippling brooks, where in a climate of 
perpetual spring shepherds and shepherdesses 
tend their flocks, make love in verse, and pipe 
and dance the livelong day. 

Here we have three little pictures — the first a kneeling shep- 
herd, the second a landscape, and the third Strephon, the Ar- 
cadian shepherd swain. Small panels in painted glass such as 
these, inspired by Arcadian ideals, were common not only in 
Holland but in all European countries from the sixteenth to 
the eighteenth century. Like the pastoral poetry, and much of 
the art of the same period, the ideas which prompted them 
sprang from the Renaissance and later took form in Dresden 

- 1 

- f&~ 


5"*2 ' 

• £ 




The Coats of Arms — Principal Arms and Quarterings — on 
the Shields in the Heraldic Windows, reading in all cases from 
left to right. 


North Window 

John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, K.G. Dudley 
quartering Bydford, Grey, Hastings, Malpas, Somery, Ferrers, 
de Valence, Belisme, Talbot, Newburgh, Beauchamp, Berkeley, 
de Lisle and Warine de Lisle. The escutcheon: Guilford 
quartering Haldane. 

King Henry VIII. France quartering England. 

King Henry VIII. France quartering England. 
°P Sir William Parr, K.G., Earl of Essex. Parr quartering Ros, 

Fitzhugh, Marmion, Green, Hondon, St. Quentin, Furneaux 
and Gernegan. 

Bay Window 

Upper Tier 

- 9 pi ■ S\, Edmund Lacy, Bishop of Exeter. 
- 1 f>t. i. The Arms of France. 

Sir Roger Fiennes. Fiennes impaling Holland. 
Edward, Prince of Wales (The Black Prince). France quar- 
fyYi /) tering England, with a silver label. 
'^jFl-y P*^ The Arms of France. 

The City of Norwich. With Edward IV's badge of the Sun 
in splendour. 
,an. r John Grandison, Bishop of Exeter. 

' Lower Tier 

^ ^ l7 King Edward III. France quartering England, 



William Cecil, 
Lord Burghley 

Robert Dudley, 
Earl of Leicester 

King Henry VIII 
XVI century 

An Armorial 
King Edward III (or King Richard II). France quartering St 

Two-light Window 
Edward, Prince of Wales (afterwards King Edward VI). $3' 
France quartering England, with a silver label. 
King Henry VIII. France quartering England.^ 

First Three-light Window 
John Barrett of Belhus. Barrett quartering Belhus. &J" /3 > / 

Arthur Grey, 14th Baron Grey of Wilton, K.G., Grey of jf;? 
Wilton quartering Glanville, Fitzhugh, Longchamps, de la 
Vache, Grey, Hastings, Cantilupe, Scotland, Braose, Mus- 
champ, de Valence, Montchesney, Marshall, Fitzosbert and 

Sir Edward Norris. Norris quartering Mountford and im- 
paling Lovel quartering Deincourt, Burnell and Holland. fiL ' /6 

Second Three-light Window 

Robert Ratcliff, 5th Earl of Sussex, K.G. Ratcliff quarter- Sf' f 

ing Fitzwalter, Lucy, Moulton, Burnell and Mortimer. 

Sir Giles Capel. Capel quartering Sir Richard de Capele. ^"^ ' 
George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland, K.G. Clifford 

quartering the * Clifford Augmentation/ Bromflete, Vesci, &*' 

Flint, Vipont, Alton and St. John. 

First Two-light Window 
William Paulet, 3rd Marquess of Winchester. Paulet quar-SJ- 
tering Creedy, Delamere, Hussey, Poynings, Rokesley, Criol, rf 2 

Crevequer, St. John, Port, Auberville, Hay, Ros, Skelton, 
Orreby and Delamere and impaling Howard, quartering 


,3 7 

: v?Sr ?l? 


Heraldic Stained Glass 

Broughton, Moore, Dawson, Peyver, Beauchamp, Hodnett, 
Beaupel, Salway , Mortimer, Bewley, Barnack, Engaine, Hussey , 
Berkeley and Allfrey. 

Sir Francis Knolles, K.G. Knolles of Oxfordshire quarter- 
ing Knolles of Lincoln. 

Second Two-light Window 
Sir Edward Coke, Lord Chief Justice of England. Coke 
quartering Holme, Pillett and Paine and impaling Cecil quar- 
tering Winston, Carlyon, Heckington and Walcot. 

Thomas Cecil, ist Earl of Exeter, K.G. Cecil quartering 
Winston, Carlyon, Heckington and Walcot and impaling 
Nevill quartering Nevill (ancient), Fitzalan, Boteler, Glanville, 
Beauchamp, de Vere, Berners, Hume, Basset, Badlesmere, 
Sergeaux, Howard, Scales, Playz, Stafford and Swinfen. 

Third Two-light Window 
Thomas Manners, Earl of Rutland. Manners with ' Aug- 
mentation ' quartering Ros, Espec, Trusbut, Beauchamp, 
Newburgh, Berkeley, Warine de Lisle, Gerard de Lisle, Hol- 
land, Tip toft, Charlton, Badlesmere, Vaux, Albini and Gren- 

Henry Clinton, 2nd Earl of Lincoln. Clinton quartering 
- Say. 

Fourth Two-light Window 

Ambrose Dudley, Earl of Warwick, K.G. Dudley quarter- 
^ ing Bellamont, Somery, Malpas, Grey, Hastings, de Valence, 
Ferrers, Ferrers of Groby, Earldom of Chester, Lee, Beau- 
champ, Newburgh, Berkeley, Warine de Lisle and de Lisle and 
impaling Russell quartering de la Tour, Muschamp, Badisford, 
Frocksmere, Wise, Sapcote and Herring. 




Robert Dudley, 
Earl of Leicester 

Ambrose Dudley, 
Earl of Warwick 

Thomas Ratcliff, Earl of Sussex 
XVI century 

An Armorial 

Thomas Wentworth, Lord Wentworth. Wentworth quarter- 
ing Spencer, Montfitchet, Newman, Vyrey, Tiptoft, Badles- 
mere, Hawley impaling Green, St. John impaling Fitzhugh, 
Nevill, Gernegan, Monthermer, Holland, Tiptoft, de la Pole, 
Inglethorpe, Bradstone, Kyrby and Harnhull. 

The First Bay Window 
King Henry VIII. France quartering England.-^- ~ 3f/fi*7 /■ 
Erlye impaling Clederowe. 

King Henry VIII. France quartering England. -HO, pi 

Thomas, Baron Audley of Walden. 5^ 

Queen Katherine Parr. France quartering England and 
impaling Parr with the * Augmentation/ quartering Ros, Mar- 
mion, Fitzhugh and Green. 

The Second Bay Window 

Paulet of Edington, Wiltshire. Paulet quartering Ros, Poyn- £2 
ings, St. John, Strange, Hussey, Leicester, Erlye and Dela- 

Paulet of Edington. Paulet impaling Clederowe. sr 2 ■ . 3 3, 

Edward, Prince of Wales (afterwards King Edward VI). 
France quartering England, with a silver label. £3 - 9c - </$ , /i 3 H / 

Edward, Prince of Wales (afterwards King Edward VI). 
France quartering England, with a silver label. 5<2 -f*-V6 f 

Seymour of Sudeley. Seymour quartering Beauchamp of 
Hache, Esturmy, Macwilliam and Coker. '% /i 3 (e ?.- 

Bay Window 
Sir John Hungerford. Hungerford (i.e. Hey tesbury quarter- S o. -9 

103 p Lt 37 f.ifio 

Heraldic Stained Glass 

ing Fitzjohn) quartering Burnell and Bottetort impaling Fetti- 

Thomas Hungerford. Hungerford quartering Burnell and 
Bottetort and impaling Halle of Salisbury. 

Jp,¥£ Sir Walter Hungerford, Baron Hungerford, K.G. Hunger- 
ford impaling Peverell. 

Edward, Prince of Wales (afterwards King Edward VI). 
France quartering England, with a silver label. 

Thomas Hugford of Dixton. Hugford quartering Dixton 
and impaling Hungerford quartering Burnell and Bottetort. 

^ Sir Anthony Hungerford. Hungerford quartering Langley 
and Longley and impaling Hungerford quartering Burnell and 

Henry Courtenay, Earl of Devon and Marquess of Exeter. 
France quartering England and quartering Courtenay and Red- 

The Window on the Left of the Fireplace 
King Henry VII. France quartering England. 
'? p. „j /7 Queen Mary I. France quartering England. 

King Henry VIII. France quartering England. 

The Window on the Right of the Fireplace 

Sir William Norris. Norris quartering Mountford and im- 
/' paling de Vere quartering Howard. 

Sir Thomas Moyle. Moyle quartering Moyle of Chester, 
Luccombe and Kayle and impaling Stanley quartering Lathom, 
Stafford, Arden and Camvile. 

John, Lord Lovel. Lovel quartering Deincourt, Burnell, 

} -53,pL>f3 104 




Lord Grey of Wilton 

Francis Russell, 
Earl of Bedford 

69-2? t 

William Paulet, Marquess of Winchester 
XVI century 

An Armorial 

and Holland and impaling Beaumont quartering Comyn of 
Badenoch, Bardolph and Philip, Lord Bardolph. 


Three-light Window 
Queen Elizabeth . France quartering England .-52 ~ '" / ' > pi* > ff P< 
Queen Mary I. France quartering England. &2 ~ 7<>-£T p/ yy /?.s~t 
A Badge of Henry VII, the portcullis, s^l - 90-/¥ t p^ t i/y~ p g-f 


A Royal Badge. The Red Rose with a White Rose in pre- 
tence, fj - ?o-m Pi ^,P.S~3 

A Royal Badge. The Red Rose and a White Rose dimi- 
diated. $2~90~2?> PI 1/7 /VV 


The Bay Window 

{Upper Tier) 

Edward, Prince of Wales (afterwards King Edward VI). 
France quartering England, with a silver label. $£- ?0- Si 'pibg fi.sS" 

Henry Stanley, 4th Earl of Derby, K.G. Stanley quartering 
Lathom , the Isle of Man , Warrenne , Strange , Wy dville , Mohun p *Tt 
and Monhaut. Pl4t£ */9 , P-£k 

Queen Elizabeth. France quartering England. 

The King of England as Sovereign of the Order of the Gar- 6 
ter. France quartering England impaled with the Cross of St. 

Henry RatclirT, 2nd Earl of Sussex, K.G. RatclifT (quar- 
tering Fitzwalter) quartering Burnell, Lucy and Moulton. PU ? fy\ 

King Henry VIII. France quartering England. SJ~fo-£y 

I0 5 /»/, !TJ fj? 

Heraldic Stained Glass 

Middle Tier 

William Cecil, Lord Burghley, K.G. Cecil quartering Win- 
ston, Carlyon, Heckington and Walcot. 

Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, K.G. Dudley quartering 
Bellamont, Sutton, Malpas, Grey, Hastings, de Valence, 
Ferrers, Ferrers of Groby, Braose, Talbot, Beauchamp, New- 
burgh, Berkeley, Warine de Lisle and de Lisle. 

Thomas Ratcliff, 3rd Earl of Sussex, K.G. RatclirT quarter- 
ing Fitzwalter, Cecil, Bottetort, Lucy, Moulton, Mortimer 
and Sudeley (impaling Boteler). 

Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, K.G. Dudley quartering 
Bellamont, Somery, Malpas, Grey, Hastings, de Valence, 
Ferrers, Ferrers of Groby, Earldom of Chester, Talbot, 
Beauchamp, Newburgh, Berkeley, Warine de Lisle and de 

pi 41, Ambrose Dudley, Earl of Warwick, K.G. Dudley quarter- 

ing Bellamont, Somery, Malpas, Grey, Hastings, de Valence, 
Ferrers, Ferrers of Groby, Earldom of Chester, Talbot, 
Beauchamp, Newburgh, Berkeley, Warine de Lisle and de 

S 3 Arthur, Lord Grey of Wilton, K.G. Grey of Wilton quarter- 
ing Longchamps, Rockley, Grey, Clare, de la Vache, Grey, 
Grey, Hastings (quartering de Valence) and Hastings. 

Pi Francis Russell, Earl of Bedford, K.G. Russell quartering 

de la Tour, Muschamp, Herring, Wise, Frocksmere, Sapcote 
and Seamark. 

William Paulet, 1st Marquess of Winchester, K.G. Paulet 
quartering Ros, Poynings, St. John, Erlye, Hussey, Leicester 
and Delamere. 


An Armorial 

George Barrett of Belhus. Barrett quartering Belhus and^ 
impaling Dineley quartering Fitzherbert, Comyn and Stokes. ffVo ** L ' 
George Barrett of Belhus. Barrett quartering Belhus. 


Sir John Lacy of Cornwall. 6" 2- 



Admiral, Lord High, 21, 36 

Agincourt, Battle of, 7, 43 

Albini, Arms of, 102 

Allfrey, Arms of, 102 

Alton, Arms of, 101 

Anne (Plantagenet), Princess, 28 

Antholin, St. : Church of (London), 

2 3 . 

Arcadian ideals in stained glass, 99 

Arden, Arms of, 49, 104 

Arms, Adoption cf, 56, 57 

Arms, College of, 52 

Ashburnham family, 58 

Ashridge, 9, 18, 30, 31, 36, 53, 60, 

63, 64, 67, 68, 70, 72 
Assumption of Our Lady, 90 
Attorney- General, 25 
Auberville, Arms of, 101 
Aubrey, John, 42 
Audley of Essex, Arms of, 34 
Audley, Barons of, 57, 58 
Audley End (Essex), 35 
Audley, Margaret, 35 
Audley of Staffordshire, Arms of, 57 
Audley, Thomas, Lord, 34-35, 103 
Augmentations, Court of, 49 
Ayscough, John, 19 

Badges, 10, 44, 51, 52, 53, 54, 71, 

100, 105 
Badlesmere, Arms of, 32, 102, 103 
Bamville, Arms of, 57 
Bamville, Joan, 57 
Banbury, Earl of, 24 
Bardolph, Arms of, 50, 105 
Bardolph, Philip Lord, Arms of, 50 
Barnack, Arms of, 102 
Barrett, Arms of, 14, 81, 82, 101, 107 
Barrett, George, of Belhus, 81, 82 
Barrett, John, of Belhus, 14, 48, 50, 

Barrett, John, of Hawkhurst, 14 
Barrett-Lennard, family, 14, 48 

Basing House (Hampshire), 79 

Basset, Arms of, 102 

Bear, chained, heraldic supporter of 
Dudley Arms, 30 

Beauchamp Chapel, Warwick, 31 

Beauchamp, Arm3 of, 39, 100, 102, 
103, 106 

Beauchamp, Richard, Earl of War- 
wick, 31 

Beauchamp Tower, Dudley wall 
panel in, 1, 30,68 

Beaufort, John, Marquess of Dorset, 

Beaufort, Margaret, 52 
Beaufort, Motto of, 52 
Beaumont, Arms of, 50, 105 
Beaumont, Joan, 50 
Beaupel, Arms of, 102 
Bedford, Earldom of, 75, 76 
Bedford, Francis Russell, Earl of, 18, 

Bedford House, London, 77 

Bedfordshire, Sheriff of, 76 

Bel Sound (Greenland), 85 

Belhus, Alice, 14 

Belhus, Arms of, 14, 81, 82, 101, 107 

Belhus (Essex), 7, 9, 14, 48, 50, 57, 

Belhus, John, 14 
Belisme, Arms of, 100 
Bellamont, Arms of, 102, 106 
Berkeley, Arms of, 100, 102, 106 
Berkhamstead, Church of, 18 
Berners, Arms of, 102 
Berwick, 77 
Bewley, Arms of, 102 
Birds in stained glass, 94 
Biron, Due de, French Ambassador, 

Black Prince, Edward the, 7-8 
Black Rod, Gentleman Usher of, 23 
Boar, White, Badge of Richard III, 71 
Bodmin (Cornwall), 49 



Bolton Castle, 24 

Bolton, Dukes of, 20 

Bonhommes, Friars, Order of, 18, 19, 

Bootle, family of, 58 
Border fights between England and 

Scotland, 22 
Boreham Church (Essex), 62 
Bosworth Field, Battle of, 71 
Boteler, Arms of, 70, 104, 106 
Boteler, Baron of Warrington, 70 
Bottetort, Arms of, 42, 44, 70, 104, 106 
Bourne (Lincolnshire), 65 
Bradstone, Arms of, 103 
Braose, Arms of, 15, 101, 106 
Bridgwater, Duke of, Francis, 19 
Bridport (Dorset), 75 
Brill, Governor of the, 27 
Bromflete, Arms of, 101 
Broughton, Arms of, 102 
Brownlow, Earl, 19 
Brydges, Frances, Countess of Exeter, 

Buckingham, Duke of, v. Stafford, 

Buckingham, Duke of, George 

Villiers, 25 
Buckinghamshire, Sheriff of, 26 
Burghley House, 27, 28, 66 
Burghley, 1st Lord, v. Cecil, Sir 

Burnell, Arms of, 42, 44, 50, 101 , 104, 

Burnell, Sir Edward, 42 
Burnell, Margaret, 42 
Bydford, Arms of, 100 

Cadency, heraldic mark of, 36, 37 

Cadiz, Siege of, 16, 69 

Cambridge, King's College Chapel, 

Cambridge, St. John's College, 65 
Camvile, Arms of, 49, 50 104 


Cantilupe, Arms of, 15, 101 

Canting heraldry, 49 

Capel, Elizabeth, 21, 78 

Capel, family of, 1, 16, 21, 29, 31 

Capel, Sir Giles, 16, 101 

Capel of Hadham, Arthur, Lord, 16, 

Capel, Sir Henry, 29 
Capel, Sir William, 16 
Capele, Sir Richard de, 16, 101 
Carlisle Castle, 24 
Carlyon, Arms of, 67, 102, 106 
Cassiobury, 1, 14, 15, 16, 18, 21, 

29>3i.4 6 >5 1 »78 
Catesby, Sir William, 71 
Caversham (Oxfordshire), 24 
Cecil, Arms of, 26, 64, 65, 67, 102, 

Cecil, David, 64, 65, 67 
Cecil, Elizabeth, 26 
Cecil, family of, 64 
Cecil, Richard, 64, 65 
Cecil, Sir Robert, 67 
Cecil, Thomas, 1st Earl of Exeter, 

Cecil, Sir William, 1st Lord Burghley, 

25, 26, 27, 64, 65-68, 76 
Chamberlain of Royal Household, 

24. 3i > 7} 
Chamberlain, Thomas, 19 
Chancellor of England, Lord, 19, 34, 

Chandos, Lord, 28 
Charles 1, 16, 25 
Charles II, 76 
Charlton, Arms of, 102 
Cheney, Henry, Lord, 19, 20 
Cheney, Jane, Lady, 19, 20, 31 
Chequers, the, a tavern sign, 59 
Chequers (Wendover), windows at, 

Cherhill (Wiltshire), 41 

Chester, Arms of, 102, 106 


Cholsey (Berkshire), 24 

Cirencester (Gloucestershire), 45 

Civil War, 79 

Clare, Arms of, 106 

Clederowe, Arms of, 33, 37, 38, 103 

Clifford, Arms of, 17, 10 1 

Clifford, George, Earl of Cumber- 
land, 17, 60 

Clifford, heraldic augmentation of, 
17, 101 

Clifford, Margaret, 60 

Clifton Camvile (Staffordshire), 49 

Clinton, Arms of, 29, 102 

Clinton, Henry, 2nd Earl of, 29 

Clinton, John, Lord, 29 

Coke, Arms of, 26, 102 

Coke, Sir Edward, 25-26 

Coker, Arms of, 39, 103 

Collingbourne, William, 71 

Commander-in-Chief, 27 

Common Pleas, the Court of, 25, 49, 

Commons, Speaker, House of, 41, 43, 


Comyn, Arms of, 81, 105, 107 
Comyn of Badenoch, Arms of, 50 
Convent Garden, The, 76, 77 
Coombe Abbey (Warwickshire), 47 
Cork, City of, 75 
Cornwall, Duchy of, 77 
Cornwall, Edmund, Earl of, 18 
Coronation of Our Lady, 90 
Costessey Hall, 10 
Coteswolde, 42 
Courtenay, Arms of, 46, 104 
Courtenay, family of, 40, 43 
Courtenay, Henry, Marquess of 

Exeter, 40, 43, 45 
Courtenay, Sir Philip, 43 
Courtenay, Robert, Baron of Oke- 

hampton, 46 
Courtenay, Sir William, 45 
Covent Garden Market, 76 

Craven, Countess of, 47 
Creedy, Arms of, 21, 101 
Creedy (Devonshire), 20 
Creedy, Sir John, 20 
Crevequer, Arms of, 101 
Crew, Sir Randolph, 19 
Cricklade (Wiltshire), 45 
Criol, Arms of, 10 1 
Cromwell, Oliver, 79 
Crown Manors, Bailiff of, 64 
Croy, Castle of, 73 
Croyland Abbey, 65 
Culceth, family of, 70 
Cumberland, George Clifford, Earl 
of, 17 

Dagnam Park, 6, 7, 44, 51, 61, 78 

Dawson, Arms of, 102 

Deincourt, Arms of, 50, 101, 104 

Delamere, Arms of, 36, 101, 103, 106 

Delapole, Arms of, 32, 103 

Delatour, Arms of, 102, 106 

De Natura Brevium, Fitzherbert's, 81 

Denbigh, Barony of, 68 

Derby, Charlotte de la Tremouille, 
Countess of, 58 

Derby, Earls of, 49, 56, 57, 58, 59, 

Devon, Earl of, v. Courtenay, Henry, 
and Redvers, William 

Dicklestone or Dixton (Gloucester- 
shire), 44 

Dineley, family and Arms of, 81, 82, 

Dineley, Elizabeth, 81, 82 

Dineley, Thomas, 81 

Dormael, Matthew Van, 88 

Dorset, Marquess of, v. Beaufort, 
John, and Grey, Thomas 

Downe Company (Wiltshire), 41, 42, 

44. 45 » 46 
Downe, Earl of, 37 



Dudley, Ambrose (Earl of Warwick), 
i, 30-1, 70,72, 102 

Dudley, Edmund, 2, 74 

Dudley, family and heraldry of, 1-3, 
30, 68-70, 72, 100 

Dudley, Guilford, 1, 4, 30, 62 

Dudley, Henry, 1 

Dudley, heraldic supporters of, 30 

Dudley, Jane, Duchess of North- 
umberland, 3 

Dudley, John, purchaser of Ashridge, 

Dudley, John, of Atherington, 2 

Dudley, John, Baron of, 2 

Dudley, Lord John, 1, 68 

Dudley, John, Duke of Northumber- 
land, 1, 3,4, 66, 68 

Dudley, Oliver, 2 

Dudley, Sir Robert, 69 

Dudley, Robert, Earl of Leicester, 1, 
30, 68, 72, 106 

Dudley Wall-panel in Beauchamp 
Tower, 1 

Dudley, William, Bishop of Durham, 

Dutch heraldry, 88-89 

Dutch Maritime trade, 83-87 

Dutch Navy, 85, 86, 87 

Dutch Whaling Expeditions, 84-87 

Earls Colne (Essex), 34 

East Marches, Lord Wardenship of 

the, 77 
Eastwell Court (Kent), 49 
Edinburgh, Siege' of, 27 
Edington (Wiltshire), 36, 37, 38 
Edward the Black Prince, 7-8 
Edward I, 70 

Edward III, 3, 9, 23, 29, 55, 100, 101 

Edward IV, 10, 28, 45, 46, 54, 55, 73 

Edward VI, 1, 11, 18, 21, 23, 31, 

37, 38, 40, 44, 56, 60, 62, 65, 66, 76, 

77,80, 100, 101, 103, 104, 105 


Edward VII, 23 

Edward, St., Chapel of, at Windsor, 

Effingham, William Howard, Baron 

of, 20 

Egerton, Thomas, Baron of Ellesmere, 

19,67 • . , 1 

Elements, The, in stained glass, 92, 

Elizabeth, Queen, 15, 17, 18, 21, 23, 

24, 27, 30, 31, 51, 60, 61, 62, 66, 67, 

68,69,71,72,75,79,80, 105 

Elizabethan Seamen, 17 

Emperor, The, 69 

Empire, Holy Roman, 69 

Enamel Painting, 5, 15, 16, 18, 22, 
26, 28, 30, 60, 67, 70, 72, 74, 77, 85, 

9°>.93>94> 9 6 >98>99 
Engaine, Arms of, 102 
England, Lord Chief Justice of, 25 
England, Prime Minister of, 13, 74 
English Whaling Expeditions, 84 
Equity, Court of, 19 
Erlye, Arms of, 33, 36, 103, 106 
Espec, Arms of, 102 
Essex, Earl of (Capel), 1 
Essex, Earls of (Devereux), 69 
Essex, Earl of (Parr), 4 
Esturmy, Arms of, 39, 103 
Ewelme, Hospital at, 66 
Exeter Cathedral, 10 
Exeter, Marquess of, v. Courtenay, 

Exeter, Thomas Cecil, 1st Earl of, v. 

Cecil, Thomas 

Fair Haven (Greenland), 85 

Farley (Somersetshire), Castle and 

Manor of, 41 
Fens, The, 64 

Ferrers, Arms of, 100, 102, 106 
Fettiplace, 40, 104 
Fiennes, Arms of, 7, 100 


Fiennes, Sir Roger, 7 
Fitzalan, Arms of, 102 
Fitzherbert, Arms of, 81, 107 
Fitzhugh, Arms of, 5, 15, 36, 100, 

ior, 103 
Fitzjohn, Sir Adam, 41 
Fitzjohn, Arms of, 42, 44, 104 
Fitzosbert, Arms of, 15, 101 
Fitz Walter, Arms of, 70, 105 
Fitz Warren, Arms of, 32 
Flemish Glass Painters, 12, 33, 40, 

46>55>5 6 >°i>03 
Flint, Arms of, 17, 10 1 
Flodden, Battle of, 22 
Flower, Barnard, 12 
Forests, Chief Justiceship of the, 77 
France, Arms of, 3, 6, 8, 44, 47, 100 
Frocksmere, Arms of, 102, 106 
Froissart (Chronicler), 23 
Furneaux, Arms of, 100 

Garter King of Arms, 42 

Garter, Knights of the Order of the, 

4, 15, 16, 17, 21, 24, 43, 55, 56, 

58, 60, 61, 62, 68, 70, 72, 74, 75, 78 
Garter, Lieutenant of the Order of 

the, 31 
Garter, Sovereign of the Order of the, 

Garter Window, The, 55-80 
Gentleman-in- Waiting to Arthur, 

Prince of Wales, 23 
George, St., Chapel of, at Windsor, 

George, St., Cross of, 61 
Gernegan, Arms of, 100, 103 
Glanville, Arms of, 101, 102 
Glaziers, Company of, of London, 12 
Goat, Heraldic Supporter of Dudley, 

Grand Abridgment, Fitzherbert's, 

Grandison, Arms of, 10, 100 

Grandison, John, Bishop of Exeter, 10 

Gray's Inn, 32, 49, 60, 65, 73, 74, 81 

Green, Arms of, 36, 100, 103 

Greenland Whale Fishery, 84 

Greenwich (Kent), 69 

Greville, wool stapler, 42 

Grey, Arms of, 3, 14, 15, 72,74, 100, 

101, 102, 106 
Grey, Charles Earl, 74 
Grey of Codnor, 73 
Grey, Edmund, of Wilton, 74 
Grey, Edward, Viscount Grey of 

Fallodon, 74 
Grey, family of, 72-75 
Grey, Sir George, 74 
Grey, Henry, of Wilton, 73 
Grey, Henry George, Earl, 74 
Grey, Lady Jane, 1, 4, 62, 66, 68, 73 
Grey, John, 73 
Grey, John, of Groby, 73 
Grey, Dukes and Earls of Kent, 73 
Grey of Powis, 74 
Grey, Richard, of Wilton, 73 
Grey of Rotherfield, 73 
Grey of Ruthyn, 73 
Grey, Sir Thomas, of Berwick, 74 
Grey, Thomas, Marquess of Dorset, 

Grey, Walter, Archbishop of York, 

Grey of Wark, 74 

Grey of Wilton, 73 

Grey of Wilton, Arthur 14th Baron, 


Guilford, Arms of, 100 
Guilford, Sir Edward, 3 

Hache, Arms of, 103 

Hadham, Capel of, Arthur Lord, 16 

Hakluyt's Voyages, 84 

Halberdiers, Captain of, 24 

Haldane, Arms of, 100 

Halle, Arms of, 42, 44, 104 



Halle, Christian, 42, 44 

Halle, John, 42 

Hall of John Halle (Salisbury), 42 

Hampton Court Palace, 12, 53 

Harnhull, Arms of, 103 

Hastings, Arms of , 3, 15, 100, 101, 

102, 106 
Hatfield (Hertfordshire), 61 
Hatton, Sir William, 26 
Hawley, Arms of, 103 
Hay, Arms of, 10 1 
Heckington, Arms of, 67, 102, 106 
Heckington, Jane, 65, 67 
Heckington, William, 65 
Hemel Hempstead, Manor of, 18 
Henri III of France, 60 
Henry V, 43, 58 
Henry VI, 43 
Henry VII, 2, 14, 47, 52, 53, 54, 62, 

6 4> 7 1 . 75> io 4 
Henry VIII, 3, 11, 12, 18, 32, 33, 34, 

35. 36, 38, 39» 44. 45. 4 6 » 47. 49> 55. 

62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 80, 100, 101, 103, 

104, 105 
Henry, Prince, 16 
Heraldry, Continental, 88 
Heralds, English College of, 88 
Herring, Arms of, 102, 106 
Heytesbury, Arms of, 42, 44 
Heytesbury, John, Lord of, 41 
Heytesbury, Manor of, 41 , 43 
Heytesbury, Maud, 41 
Hilliard, Nicholas, portrait painter, 17 
Hodnett, Arms of, 102 
Holland, Arms of, 7, 32, 50, 102, 103 
Holland, Elizabeth, 7 
Holme, Arms of, 102 
Hondon, Arms of, 100 
Hone, Galyon, 12, 13, 33, 40, 47, 55, 

Horn Sound (Greenland), 84 
Horse, Master of the, 68 
Hospitals, 43, 66 

II 4 

Household, Controller of Royal, 24 

Household, Steward of Royal, 43 

Howard, Agnes, Marchioness of 
Winchester, 20 

Howard, Arms of, 21, 22, 48, 101, 
102, 104 

Howard, Elizabeth, 71 

Howard, heraldic augmentation of, 
22, 48 

Howard, Thomas, Earl of Suffolk and 
Baron of Walden, 35 

Howard, Thomas, Earl of Surrey, 22 

Howard, William, Baron of Effing- 
ham, 20 

Hugford, Arms of, 44, 104 

Hugford, Thomas, 44 

Huguenots, Military Aid to, 30 

Hull, 19 

Hume, Arms of, 102 

Hungerford, Sir Anthony, 45, 104 

Hungerford badge, 44 

Hungerford Chapel (Salisbury Cathe- 
dral), 43 

Hungerford Crest, 44 

Hungerford, Sir Edmund, 41, 42 

Hungerford, family of, 40-46 

Hungerford, Isabel, 44 

Hungerford, Sir John, 40, 41, 42, 103 

Hungerford, Lucy, 45 

Hungerford, Thomas, of Downe 
Ampney, 42, 44 

Hungerford, Sir Thomas, Speaker 
of the House of Commons, 41, 42 

Hungerford, Walter, 41, 42, 104 

Hungerford, Sir Walter, 1st Lord 
Hungerford, 42, 43, 45, 104 

Hungerford, Sir Walter, last Lord 
Hungerford, 45 

Hurstmonceaux Castle, 7, 8, 9, 14 

Hussey, Arms of, 36, 101, 102, 103, 

Hussey, Sir Edmund, 41 

Hussey, Joan, 41 


Inglethorpe, Arms of, 103 

Inns of Court, 32 

Inscriptions on Dutch stained glass, 

Ireland, 15, 24, 58, 71, 73, 75 
Isle of Man, Arms of, 59, 105 

James I, 16, 24, 25, 27 

John of Jerusalem, St., Knights of, 

John XXII, Pope, 10 

Katherine of Aragon, 44 

Katherine (Plantagenet), Princess, 45 

Kayle, Arms of, 49, 104 

Kendal, Honour and Castle of, 5 

Kenilworth Castle, 27 

Kentlworth, novel by Sir Walter 

Scott, 27, 72 
King's Glazier, 12, 33, 55 
King's Guard, Yeomen of the, 64 
Knolles, family of, 22-24 
Knolles, Francis, 23-24 
Knolles, Henry, 23 
Knolles of Lincoln, Arms of, 22, 102 
Knolles of Oxfordshire, Arms of, 22, 

Knolles, Sir Robert, 23 
Knolles of Rotherfield Greys, Baron, 

Knolles, Sir Thomas, 22-23 
Knolles, William, 24 
Knollys, Sir William Thomas, 23 
Knowsley (Lancashire), 58 
Kyrby, Arms of, 103 

Lacy, Arms of, 5, 90, 100, 107 
Lacy, Edmund, Bishop of Exeter, 5, 

Lacy, Sir John, 90 

Lancashire, Lord Lieutenancy of, 60 
Lancashire, Sheriff of, 70 
Lancaster, House of, 53, 54 

Langley, Arms of, 45, 104 
Lathom, Arms of, 49, 58, 104, 105 
Lathom, Isabel, 58 
Lathom (Lancashire), 58 
Lathom, Sir Thomas, 58 
Latimer, John Nevill, Lord, 26 
Laurence Pountney, St., Church of, 

London, 62 
Lee, Arms of, 102 
Lee of Fareham, Lord, 13 
Leicester, Arms of, 36, 103, 106 
Leicester, Earl of, v. Dudley, Robert 
Lennard, Sampson, 7 
Lennard, Thomas, Earl of Sussex, 7 
Leverstijk, Abraham, 85 
Lincoln, Henry Clinton, 2nd Earl of, 

Lincolnshire, Cecil Estates in, 27 
Lion and Ragged Staff, badge of 

Dudley, 30 
Lisle, Arms of, 100, 102, 106 
Little Gaddesden, Manor of, 18 
Liverpool, 19 

London, Lord Mayors of, 16, 21, 23 
London, Tower of, 1, 30, 61, 62, 68, 

Longchamps, Arms of, 101, 106 
Longley, Arms of, 45, 104 
Lovel, Arms of, 50, 101, 104 
Lovel, Francis, Viscount, 14, 71 
Lovel, Frideswide, 14, 50 
Lovel, John, Lord, 50 
Low Countries, the, 27, 55 
Luccombe, Arms of, 49, 104 
Lucy, Arms of, 70, 105, 106 

Macwilliam, Arms of, 39, 103 
Magdalene College, Cambridge, 35 
Magnetic needle, early use of, 83 
Malpas, Arms of, 100, 102, 106 
Manchester, 19 
Manners, Anne, 29 
Manners, Arms of, 28, 102 



Manners, family of, 29 

Manners, George, Lord Ros, 28 

Manners, Katherine, 29 

Manners, Thomas, 29 

Manningham, John, Diarist, 16 

Margaret, St., Church of, Westmin- 
ster, 65 

Marmion, Arms of, 36, 100 

Marshall, Arms of, 101 

Marshall, Ralph, 19 

Marshalling, unusual heraldic, 61 

Mary I, 4, 21, 47, 51, 60, 61, 62, 
66,67,68,71,77, 104, 105 

Mary, Queen of Scots, 15, 21, 24, 
31, 60 

Maximilian I, Emperor, 75 

Melckbourne Preceptory, 76 

Mersey, River, 19 

M.O.E. (initials), meaning of, 47 

Mohun, Arms and Barony of, 59, 105 

Monhaut,Arms and Barony of, 59, 105 

Montacute, Lord, 46 

Montchesney, Arms of, 15, 101 

Montfitchet, Arms of, 32, 103 

Monthermer, Arms of, 103 

Moore, Arms of, 102 

Morrison, Bridget, 16, 18 

Morrison, Sir Charles, 1, 16, 17, 18 

Morrison, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
Charles, 17 

Morrison, Elizabeth, daughter of Sir 
Richard, 29 

Morrison, Jane Sibylla, 15 

Morrison, Sir Richard, 1, 15, 31, 76 

Mortimer, Arms of, 70, 101, 102, 106 

Moulton, Arms of, 105, 106 

Mountford, Arms of, 48, 101, 104 

Moyle, Arms of, 49, 104 

Moyle, Sir Thomas, 49 

Moyle, Sir Walter, 49 

Muschamp, Arms of, 101, 102, 106 

Navigation, early, 17, 83 

Neave, Sir Thomas, Baronet, 6, 61 
Nevill, Arms of, 32, 102, 103 
Nevill, Dorothy, Countess of Exeter, 

26, 28 
Nevill, John, Lord Latimer, 26 
Nevill, Sir Henry, 46 
Newburgh, Arms of, 100, 102, 106 
New Canal, Salisbury, 42 
Newman, Arms of, 103 
Norfolk, Margaret, Duchess of, 35 
Norfolk, Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke 

of, 22, 71 
Norris, Arms of, 48, 57, 101, 104 
Norris, Sir Edward, of Yattendon, 14 
Norris, Mary, 14, 48, 81 
Norris, Sir William, 48 
North, Council of the, 27, 71 
North, Frances, Lady Guilford, 11, 

North, Sir Francis, Baron Guilford, 

Northampton, Marquess of, Parr 

William, 4 
Northamptonshire, Cecil estates in, 

Northamptonshire, Sheriff of, 64 
Northumberland, Duke of, v. Dudley, 

Norwich, City of, Arms of, 9-10, 100 

Ockwells or Ockholt (Berkshire), 

stained glass at, 14 
Okehampton, Baron of, v. Courtenay, 

Ordnance, Master of the, 68 
Ormskirk (Lancashire), 60 
Orreby, Arms of, 101 
Oxford, Earl of, v. Vere 

Paine, Arms of, 102 

Parr, Arms of, 5, 38, 100, 103 

Parr, Barony of, 4 

Parr, heraldic augmentation of, 36 


Parr, Queen Katherine, 3, 36, 38 
Parr, Sir William, Marquess of 

Northampton, 3-5 
Parry, Thomas, Cofferer to Princess 

Elizabeth, 66 
Paston, Bridget, 25 
Paulet, Arms of, 21,22,36,37,38, 78, 

101, 103, 106 
Paulet, Sir Amias, 21 
Paulet, family of, 20, 21, 34, 36, 37, 

39, 78-80 
Paulet, John, 79 
Paulet, Sir John, 20 
Paulet, Motto of, 37 
Paulet (Somersetshire), 20 
Paulet, Sir William, 1st Marquess of 

Winchester, 21, 78-80 
Paulet, William, 3rd Marquess of 

Winchester, 21, 78 
Percy, Sir Henry, 26 
Peverell, Arms of, 44, 104 
Peverell, Katherine, 43, 45 
Peyver, Arms of, 102 
Philip, Archduke, 75 
Philip and Mary, 60, 80 
Pillett, Arms of, 102 
Pisa, drainage of marshes at, 69 
Pitstone, Manor of, 18 
Plate Fleet, Spanish, 17 
Playz, Arms of, 102 
Pole, Cardinal, 46 
Pole, Henry, 46 
Pomegranate badge, 44 
Pope, Thomas, 3rd Earl of Downe, 

Pope, Sir William, Baronet, 11 
Port, Arms of, 101 
Portcullis badge, 51 
Portcullis Pursuivant of Arms, 52 
Portpole, Manor of, 73, 74 
Portrait Gallery, National, 17 
Poulett, Earls, 20 
Powderham Castle, 43 

Poynings, Arms of, 21, 36, 78, 101, 

103, 106 
Poynings, Barony of, 21, 79 
Poynings, Constance, 79 
Poynings, family of, 78-79 
Poynings, Lucas, Lord, 78 
Poynings, Sir Thomas, Lord, 79 
Precedence, heraldic, 3 
Privy Chamber, Gentleman of the, 

Privy Councillors, 24, 30, 60, 77 
Pursuivants of Arms, 52 

Ragged staff, bear and, badge of 

Dudley, 30 
Raine (Essex), 16, 29 
Raleigh, Sir Walter, 75 
Ratcliff, Arms of, 15, 61, 105 
Ratcliff, family of, 15, 61-63, 70-72 
Ratcliff, Henry, 2nd Earl of Sussex, 

Ratcliff, James, 2nd Earl of Der- 

wentwater, 61 
Ratcliff (Lancashire), 70 
Ratcliff, Sir Richard, 71 
Ratcliff, Robert, 1st Earl of Sussex, 

Ratcliff, Robert, 5th Earl of Sussex, 

Ratcliff, Thomas, 3rd Earl of Sussex, 

Ratcliff Tower, Richard and William 

of, 70 
Ratcliff, William, 70 
Ravenscroft, Arms of, 57 
Redvers, Arms of, 46, 104 
Redvers, Mary, 46 

Redvers, William, Earl of Devon, 46 
Religious Houses, dissolution of, 18, 

34, 36, 49, 65, 76 
Richard II, 9, 101 
Richard III, 71 
Rivers, Richard, Earl of, 59 



Robert, Duke of Normandy, 73 

Robsart, Amy, 68 

Rockley, Arms of, 106 

Rokesley, Arms of, 10 1 

Rollo the Chamberlain, 73 

Ros, Arms of, 36, 100, 101, 102, 103, 

Ros, George Manners, Lord, 28 

Ros of Kendal, Arms of, 5, 36 

Rose en soleil Badge, 54 

Roses, Tudor, 44, 53, 54 

Rotherfield Greys (Oxfordshire), 24 

Rouge Dragon Pursuivant of Arms, 52 

Royal Arms, 1, 3, 7-8, 9, 11, 12, 33, 
34. 3 6 » 37. 38, 4°. 44. 4 6 . 47. 5 1 . 
5 2 >53»54. 55. 56. 6°. 61, 63 

Royal Chamber, Usher of, 23 

Russell, Anne, 30 

Russell, Arms of, 102, 106 

Russell, family of, 75-78 

Russell, Francis, 2nd Earl of Bed- 
ford, 18, 31, 75, 76, 77 

Russell, John, 75 

Rutland, Cecil estates in, 27 

Rutland, Francis, 1st Earl of, 28, 29 

Rutland, Sheriff of, 64 

Sadler, Dendy, R.A., 9 

Saffron Walden Church (Essex), 

Audley Chapel at, 35 
St. John, Arms of, 21, 36, 78, 101, 

103, 106 
St. John of Basing, Barony of, 21, 79 
St. John of Basing, Lord, 79 
St. John, Hugh, Lord, 78 
St. John, Isabel, 78 
St. Ledger, Anne, 28 
St. Quentin, Arms of, 100 
St. Quentin, Battle of, 77 
Salisbury Cathedral, 43 
Salisbury, Mayor of, 42 
Salisbury Plaines, Wool of, 42 
Salisbury (Wiltshire), 42, 44 


Sallowes, Allen, 84 

Sal way, Arms of, 102 

Sapcote, Arms of, 102, 106 

Say, Arms of, 29 

Say, Idonea, 29 

Say, William, Lord, 29 

Scales, Arms of, 102 

Scotland, Arms of, 10 1 

Scott, Sir Walter, 27, 72 

Seamark, Arms of, 106 

Seasons, the, in stained glass, 96, 97 

Sergeaux, Arms of, 102 

Seymour, Arms of, 38, 39, 103 

Seymour, Edward, Duke of Somerset, 

Seymour, family of, 36, 38 
Seymour, Henry, 38 
Seymour, heraldic augmentation of, 

Seymour, Queen Jane, 38 
Seymour, Sir John, 38 
Seymour, Thomas, Baron of Sude- 

ley, 36, 38, 39 

Sheffield, Lord and Lady, 68 

Ships, as subjects of Dutch stained 
glass, 85, 86 

Simnel, Lambert, 14 

Skelton, Arms of, 101 

Solicitors General, 25 

Somerset, Duke of, v. Seymour, 

Somery, Arms of, 2, 100, 102, 106 

Spencer, Arms of, 103 

Spenser, Edmund, 15 

Stafford, Arms of, 49, 50, 102, 104 

Stafford, Edward, Duke of Buck- 
ingham, 35 

Stained Glass, i\th Century, 6, 7-8, 
9 ; \$th Century, 5, 7, 8-9, 10, 90 ; 
ibth Century, 1-5, 11, 14, 15-32, 

33-39. 40-50. 5i. 52. 53. 54. 55-8o, 
81-82, 83, 85, 86, 90 ; 17th Cen- 
tury, 87, 88, 93, 94, 96, 98, 99 


Stamford (Lincolnshire), 64, 65, 67 
Stanford Dineley (Berkshire), 81 
Stanley, Arms of, 49, 50, 56, 57, 104, 

Stanley, family of, 56-60 
Stanley, George, 59 
Stanley, Henry, 4th Earl of Derby, 

Stanley, Joan, 57 
Stanley, Sir John, 58 
Stanley, Thomas, 57 
Stanley, Thomas, 2nd Earl of Derby, 


Stanley, Thomas, 2nd Lord, 59 

Stanley, Sir William, 57, 58 

Stanneries, Lord Wardenship of the, 

Staple, Merchant of the, 42 

State, Secretary of, 65 

Stoke, Battle of, 14 

Stoke Poges (Bucks), 26 

Stokes, family and arms of, 81, 82, 

Stoneley (Staffordshire), 56, 57 

Strange, Arms of, 36, 59, 103, 105 

Strange, George Stanley, Lord, 59 

Strange, Joan, 59 

Strange of Knockyn, John, Lord, 59 

Strephon, 99 

Stuart Dynasty and Public Rights, 

Sudeley, Arms of, 106 

Sudeley, Lord Seymour of, v. Sey- 
mour, Thomas 

Suffolk, Thomas Howard, Earl of, 35 

Sun in Splendour, badge of, 10 

Surrey, Thomas Howard, Earl of, 22 

Sussex, Robert Ratcliff, 5th Earl of, 
v. Ratcliff, Robert 

Sussex, Thomas Lennard, Earl of, 7 

Sussex, Thomas, 3rd Earl of, v. Rat- 
cliff, Thomas 

Sutton, Arms of, 106 

Swans, Keeper of the, 64 
Swinfen, Arms of, 102 

Talbot, Arms of, 100, 106 

Tavistock Abbey, 76 

Thalk (Staffordshire), 57 

Thouars, Due de, 58 

Tin mines of Devon and Cornwall, 77 

Tiptoft, 32, 102, 103 

Tittleshall Church (Norfolk), 26 

Topographer, The, 19, 22, 61, 75 

Touchet, Arms of, 57 

Tower Hill, 16, 71 

Trade, development of overseas, 83 

Treasurer, Lord High, of England, 

21, 43, 79 
Treasurer of Royal Household, 23 
Treasury, Commissioner of the, 24 
Trenchard, Sir Thomas, 75 
Trusbut, Arms of, 102 
Tutbury, 21, 24 

Vache, Arms of, 10 1, 106 

Valence, Arms of, 15, 100, 101, 102, 

Van Slauerden, Schipper, 86 
Vaux, Arms of, 102 
Vere, de, Arms of, 48, 102, 104 
Vere, de, Jane, 48 
Vere, de, John, Earl of Oxford, 48 
Vesci, Arms of, 10 1 
Vipont, Arms of, 101 
Vyrey, Arms of, 103 

Walcot, Arms of, 67, 102, 106 
Walden Abbey (Essex), 34 
Walden, Lord Howard of, 35 
Wales, Arms of Princes of, 8, 11 
Wales, Lord Presidentship of, 77 
Wallingford, William Knolles, Vis- 
count, 24 
Wardrobe, Groom of the Royal, 64 
Wards, Court of, 24 

II 9 


Warrenne, Arms of, 59, 105 
Warwick, Ambrose Dudley, Earl of, 

1. 3P-3 1 
Warwick, Richard Beauchamp, Earl 

of, 31 

Warwick, St. Mary's Church, 31 
Webb, wool stapler, 42 
Wenman, wool stapler, 42 
Went worth, Arms of, 31-32, 103 
Wentworth, Sir Thomas, Lord Went- 

worth, 31-32 
Westminster Abbey, Lady Chapel at, 

47. 52, 53 
Westminster Abbey, Tomb of the 

Earl of Exeter, 28 
Westminster Palace, Windows at, 12 
Weymouth (Dorset), 75 
Whaddon (Bucks), 15 
Whale, Jon de, 84 
Whitefriars, Stamford, 65 
Whitehall (London), 61 
Whittlesea Mere, Water Bailiff of, 

Wllbraham, family of, 58 
Wiltshire, Earl of (Sir William 

Paulet), 78 
Winchester Cathedral, burial of the 

Countess of Exeter, 28 

Winchester, 4th Marquess of, 79 
Winchester, Marquess of, 20, 21, 28, 

7 8 

Winchester, See of, 5 

Windsor (Berks), 55, 75 

Winston, Arms of, 67, 102 

Wirral, Lord Warden of the Forest of, 

Wise, Arms of, 102, 106 
Woburn Abbey, 76 
Wolsey, Cardinal, 35, 62 
Woodstock (Oxfordshire), 61 
Worsley, 19 

Wothorpe, Manor of, 65 
Wriothesley, Sir Thomas, 42 
Wroxton Abbey, n, 33, 37, 40, 47, 

t 55 
Wyatt, James (Architect), 1, 43 
Wyatt, Rebellion of Sir Thomas, 61, 

77 . 
Wydville, Arms of, 59, 105 
Wydville, Elizabeth, 73 
Wydville, Jacquetta, 59 

York, Archbishop of, 73 
York, Elizabeth of, 53 
York, House of, 53, 54 

in ber or^all tbere sbe was 
closeb well witb recall glas. 

IRomaunt of Sir (Bu?.